Dan Breen utterly rejected the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which made him, like many others, angry and embittered:
 Captain Tadhg Kennifick, Cork No. 1 Brigade IRA, was killed by the Free State Army on the 8th September 1922, while on the way to his mothers' funeral. He received a horrific death, under the orders of General Dalton, who had him dragged behind the back of a Free State truck, while his hands were tied together. He was then beaten with rifle butts in the face and on his body, losing several teeth and incurring vicious wounds and was eventually shot twice in the head and his body dumped behind a wall just outside Coachford Village, Co. Cork

Executions December 8 1922: According to the official announcemen The execution took place this morning at Mountjoy Gaol of the following persons taken in arms against the Free State Government: — Rory O’Connor, Liam Mellowes, Joseph McKelvey, and Richard Barrett

1 July – Free State troops take Republican outposts in the south of Dublin city and throw a cordon around their concentration on O'Connell street.Republican outposts at the Swan Hotel on Aungier street and at Harcourt Road and Adelaide Road are cleared by National Army troops equipped with armoured cars and artillery. About 400 IRA prisoners are taken in the operation

Commandant Sean Bergin,
OC Flying Column, 1st Battalion South Roscommon Brigade, IRA


Sean, from Connolly Street, Nenagh, was shot dead while a prisoner at Loughlin Wood.Co Roscommon

. The 1923 hunger-strike
had its after effects, health-wise, too. Joe Lacey, Wexford, continued to decline
after the end of the hunger strike, and died in the Curragh Military Hospital on
24 December 1923
Joseph (Joe) Lacey died from complications as a result of Hunger Strike at the Curragh Hospital on the 24th of December 1923. He was 25 years old and the brother of Captain Denis (Dinny)Lacey who had been killed in action in March 1923 while fighting on the Anti-Treaty I.R.A. side. While his brother is remembered well in song and story, Joe's life and death was no less courageous and honourable and deserves to be remembered.
Seven men were executed in the Glasshouse, in the Curragh Camp by the Free State army on December 19 in the biggest official executions of the Civil War. They were Patrick Bagnall and Patrick Mangan, Fairgreen, Kildare; Joseph Johnston, Station Road, Kildare; Bryan Moore and Patrick Nolan, Rathbride, Kildare; Stephen White, Abbey St. Kildare and James O’ Connor, Bansha, Co. Tipperary. These seven men, along with Comdt. Thomas Behan were found in a dug-out at Mooresbridge, on the edge of the Curragh, on the night of December 13. They were under the command of Comdt. Bryan Moore, 38, a veteran IRA officer, and comprised a section of the 6th Battn. Column
Michael (Mick) Mansfield, Staff Engineer, Waterford Brigade, I. R. A. in uniform and holding a pistol. Michael fought in the War of Independence and on the Republican side in the following Civil War
Jim Mansfield, in uniform was O. C. of the 3rd Waterford Battalion of I. R. A. during the War Of Independence and the Civil War. He escaped to Canada after the cease fire.

1923 IRA Hunger Strike

In Feb of 1923, 23 members of Cumann na mBan (including Mary and Annie MacSwiney, Lily Brennan and Nellie Ryan, sister-in-law of the Free State's Commander-in-Chief and Defence Minister Richard Mulcahy) went on strike for 34 days over illegal arrest and imprisonment without trial of prisoners. The strike resulted in the release of the women hunger-strikers. On 23 May 1923, the Irish Civil War officially ended, but the state continued to go after republicans, keeping 12,000 men and women in prison and persecuting and harrassing countless others. By October of 1923 tension was at an all-time high in the prisons and camps because of conditions and with no release in sight. On 13 October 1923, Michael Kilroy, OC of the IRA pows in Mountjoy, announced a mass strike by 300 prisoners, and it soon spread to other jails, and within days 7,033 republicans were on hunger strike. The figures given by Sinn Féin at the time were Mountjoy Jail 462; Cork Jail 70; Kilkenny Jail 350; Dundalk Jail 200; Gormanstown Camp 711; Newbridge Camp 1,700; Tintown 1,2,3, Curragh Camp 3,390; Harepark Camp 100; and, 50 women in the North Dublin Union.

October 13 1923: Noel Lemass, Capt in Anti-Treaty IRA  is found dead near Glencree in the Dublin mountains. Noel Lemass was a member of the 3rd Battalion, Dublin Brigade IRA
On 11 November 1922: Patrick Lynch of Moyrisk was unarmed when he was shot dead at his house. At Currahane Sands beyond Ardfert a drunken raiding party succeeded in capturing Eugene Fitzgerald at his aunt's house. On the journey to Tralee jail his left leg was broken and crushed to a pulp and he was shot through the side in an attempt to get him to reveal the whereabouts of the local IRA column. He died from his wounds a couple of months later on 16 January 1923.

Dan Breen utterly rejected the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which made him, like many others, angry and embittered:

I would never have handled a gun or fired a shot… to obtain this Treaty… writing on the second anniversary of Martin Savage's death, do you suppose that he sacrificed his life in attempting to kill one British Governor-General to make room for another British Governor-General?

On April 11 1923: Waterford Anti-Treaty IRA Flying Column Leader Tom Keating is mortally wounded. He is transported in a horse and dray and is denied medical attention. The Dungarvan parish priest permits only one mass to be offered for him.

December 26 1920: John ‘Flyer’ Nyhan, one of the Kilmichael ambushers, is captured at Shannonvale, Co. Cork and imprisoned in Ballykinlar.

John 'Flyer' Nyhan 1892-1934
Born Clonakilty. Became Quartermaster of his local batallion and Staff Captain of Cork No. 1 Brigade. Jailed in March 1920, he went on hunger strike for 21 days and was released in June of that year. Played a major role in the Kilmichael ambush, but was captured six weeks later and held until the end of the war. During the Civil War was hit by six bullets when Free State troops tried to capture him, but he managed to escape.

IRA Volunteer John Linnane was shot in the head whilst surrendering at Trieneragh, Co. Kerry by Free State Forces, on Friday the 13th of April 1923.

John Linnane was born in Ballydonoghue Co. Kerry in 1897, to a farming family. He was a member of the Irish Volunteers from its re-organisation in Listowel in 1917. He was a Volunteer of the Listowel Company, 6th Battalion, Kerry No. 1 Brigade

October 10 1922: Peadar Breslin, a Republican captured after the fall of the Four Courts, is shot dead during an attempt to escape from Mountjoy Prison in Dublin. Three Free State soldiers are also killed in the fight during the escape attempts.
November 171922: Philip Gilgunn was a volunteer of the Irish Republican Army who was killed in action in Cluainín, Co. Leitrim during a battle with Irish Free State forces during the Irish Civil War on 18 November 1922.Photo:Roadside memorial outside Cluainín to IRA volunteer Phil Gilgunn, killed in November 1922 during the Irish Civil War

The Brave Members of the Macroom IRA during the Civil War
Liam (William Joseph) Mellows (25 May 1892 – 8 December 1922 was an Irish republican and Sinn Féin politician. Born in England, Mellows grew up in County Wexford in Ireland. He was active with the Irish Republican Brotherhood and Irish Volunteers, and participated in the Easter Rising in County Galway, and the War of Independence
Joe McKelvey We are gathered here to pay a solemn tribute to one who was a true soldier of Ireland. General McKelvey was a man who died for his principles, and he thought it was the noblest and truest thing a man could do. When he walked across the yard of Mountjoy Prison and stood before the firing squad, he did so confident in the thought that the people he left behind would carry on where he had left off
On January 11th, 1923, the railway terminus at Sligo was mined and sprinkled with petrol by armed men.
The building was totally destroyed.
Seven engines were sent down the line towards the goods' yard.
One of them smashed through the concrete wall and plunged into the harbour.
Damage was estimated at £80,000.
Earlier, on November 15th, 1922, the Sligo railway signal box was destroyed.
On December 14th, 1922, armed men detached an engine from a train near Ballymote and sent it full steam ahead.
It was 'derailed' by officials on to a bank, without causing loss of life

Roscrea Excecutions On the seventh of January 1922 the Treaty was passed into the Dail by 64 votes to 57.Eamon de Valera,Cathal Brugha and Austin Stack resign and the country is divided. This was the start of a shameful civil war that was to pit brother against brother. People who had fought shoulder to shoulder now found themselves on opposite sides in this bloody conflict that was to leave 1250 irish men and women dead. 77 of these were excecuted.
Among those were 4 Tipperary men excecuted in Roscrea by the free state army.

February 4 1923: 1923 – In Shorne, Rathmore, Co Kerry, Anti-Treaty IRA fighter Micheal McSweeney is shot dead by Free State troops.

Free State troops use IRA prisoners to clear a blocked road near Bandon, Cork, a booby trap mine explodes while they are clearing a road block, killing two prisoners and injuring seven.

Remembering IRA Volunteers James McEnery, Edward Greaney & Reginald Hathway who were executed by Free State forces on the 25th of April 1923, at Ballymullen Barracks, County Kerry.

Reginald Hathaway Stennings Alias Walter Stephens, a 23 year old Englishman, a native of London.

 Five members of the Irish Republican Army who were executed by the Free State, on the 20th of January 1923, at Custume Barracks, Athlone, County Westmeath.

Thomas Hughes, from Bogginfin, Athlone, who was Lieutenant Commandant, 'Officer Commanding Munitions', Western Division I.R.A. He had served as Captain with the 3rd Engineers Dublin Brigade and was also 'Officer Commanding Munitions' in Athlone.

Michael Walsh, born in Derrymore, County Galway. He was Vice-Commandant, 2nd Battalion No. 1 Brigade, Western Division.

Herbert Collins, a native of Kickeen, Headford, County Galway, who was captured at Currahan and charged with being in possession of arms and ammunition.

Stephen Joyce, a native of Derrymore, Caherlistrane, County Galway and Martin Burke, a native of Caherlistrane, County Galway - he was Officer Commanding, Active Service Unit Number 3 Brigade, Western Division.

There were five executions on the 20th of January 1923 in Athlone, where the Western Command of the army was being entangled in the web. They are of particular interest to us because all five had Galway or Western connections, as had the sixth person, General Tom Maguire, TD who was also sentenced to death, but possibly because of his status as TD the death sentence was not carried out in his case. On Saturday January 20th, 1923 those five men were taken out in Custume Barracks, Athlone, lined by a wall and, on the orders of Highest Command in the Free State Forces, executed.

January 1923: Anti-Treaty IRA prisoners executed in Dundalk

In yesterday's papers it was announced that the Government had decided to hand over the bodies of the men executed during the civil strife in 1922-23. The intimation to the relatives stated that if they did not notify their intention of claiming the remains before Monday next, the military authorities would have them buried in sanctified ground.

Almost eighty executions took place altogether, and six of these were in Dundalk. At the County Jail on the morning of January , 13th 1922 three young men, Thos. McKeown, Piedmont, Bellurgan ; John McNulty, Carromannon, Balleeks, Co. Armagh, and Thomas Murray, Kilcarn, Navan, were shot on a charge of being in possession of firearms. Little over a week later (Jan. 22nd), three more also paid the supreme penalty at the Military Barracks. They were Jas. Melia, Bridge Street, Dundalk; Thomas Lennon, Dowdallshill and Joseph Ferguson, Gyles' Quay. The two former had been captured with arms at Dowdallshill on 7th January, and Ferguson was found in possession of a revolver at Lordship Hall on the same date.

February 11 1923: Two Anti-Treaty army men from Tralee (Michael Sinnot and James O’Connor) are killed in their dug-out in Mrs Lyons’ shed at Currahane Strands (between Tralee Bay and Ballyheigue).

Ned Bofin’s IRA column in late 1922 and early 1923 raided with impunity from their lair in the Arigna mountains, repeatedly humiliating Free State garrisons in the county towns.

Beginning in late 1922 the anti-Treaty column based in Arigna began systematic dismantling of the Free State security apparatus in the region. In November 1922 Ballinamore Civic Guard (police) station was held up and the Guards’ uniforms taken.

Emboldened by their easy victory over the unarmed Guards, on December 8, the anti-Treatyites attacked and overpowered the Free State military garrison at Carrickonshannon, killing one soldier (a civilian was also killed in the exchange of fire) and seizing the arms and motor transport of the soldiers.

There were further attacks on barracks at Dowra and Manorhamilton before Bofins’ men had their greatest coup, at Ballinamore on January 28 1923. There, the barracks was taken after a short fire fight and then blown up. The train station was also destroyed and as well as losing their arms and tenders, the 35 Free State soldiers were rounded up and taken back the Arigna mountains as prisoners.

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Republicans Executed by the Free State Government during the Civil War.


Nov.17th; James Fisher, Peter Cassidy, Richard Twohig, John Gaffney, Nov 24th: Erskine Childers,  Nov. 30th: Joseph Sponer, Patrick Farrelly, John Murphy,  Dec 8th: Rory O’Connor, Liam Mellows, Joseph McKelvey, Dec 19: Stephen White, Joseph Johnston, Patrick Mangan, Patrick Nolan, Brian Moore, James O’Connor, Patrick Bagnell. Dec 29th:  John Murphy, John Phelan, Jan 8th: Leo Dowling, Sylvester Heaney, Lawrence Sheeky, Anthony O’Reilly, Terence Brady:  Jan 13:  Thomas McKeown, John McNulty, Thomas Murray, Jan 15; Frederick Burke, Patrick Russell, Martin O’Shea, Patrick McNamara, James Lillis; Jan 20th: James Daly, James  Hanlon, Cornelius McMahon, Patrick Hennessy, Thomas Hughes, Michael Walsh, Herbert Collins, Stephen Joyce, Martin Burke:  Jan 22nd;   James Melia, Thomas Lennon, Joseph Ferguson;     Jan 26th; Patrick O’Reilly, Patrick Cunningham, William Conroy, Colum Kelly:  Jan27th; Patrick  Geraghty, Joseph Byrne:  Feb 26th:   Thomas Gibson:  Mar 13th; James O’Rourke, William Healy, James Parle, Patrick Hogan, John Creane:  Mar 14th Sean Larkin, Daniel Enright, Charles Daly;  April 11th;  James O’Malley, Francis Cunnane, Michael Monaghan, John Newell, John Maguire, Martin Moylan:  April 25th;     Richard Hathaway, James McEnery, Edward Greaney; April 26th, Patrick Mahoney, May 2nd Christopher Quinn.  

To the brave men of Kerry who were murdered by the Free state Soldiers 
Captain Michael Ahern, 6th Company, Kerry No.2 Brigade, Irish Republican Army, who was murdered  by Free State forces on the 25th of October 1922.
On 26th August 1922, during the Irish Civil War, two senior Fianna Eireann officers, Sean Cole, Commandant of the 2nd Battalion (Dublin Brigade) and Alfred Colley, Commandant of the 1st Battalion (Dublin Brigade) were arrested by intelligence members of the National Army at Newcomen Bridge on the North Strand and taken to Yellow Road, Whitehall in North Dublin and shot dead.
On the 2nd of May 1923 27 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Volunteers escaped from the County Jail in Wexford. One of the escapees was Michael (Mick) Redford. He was still on the run on the 22nd of June when he was shot. Accounts of the shooting vary, the Anti-Treaty Republican side state Redford was unarmed and although shot and mortally wounded on the evening of the 22nd he was left to die and his body not recovered until the next day. He was shot twice at The Cotts, Tacusmshane, County Wexford.
29 October 1922: An Anti-Treaty IRA column under Michael Kilroy attacks and takes Clifden, County Galway, capturing 80 Free State soldiers, after a ten-hour gun battle. The IRA Colum burned the barracks  and take the Free State soldiers rifles before retreating.

On Thursday the 30th of November 1922 the following Anti treaty IRA soldiers were executed, after being found guilty by Court Martial. The executions took place in Dublin at 8.15am.

Joseph Spooner, 67 McCaffrey’s Estate Mount Brown Dublin City. Found guilty of having in his possession a revolver without proper authority at Erne Street Dublin on the 30th of October 1922.
Patrick Farrelly, 67 Chancery Lane Dublin, found guilty of possession of a bomb at Erne Street Dublin on the 30th of October 1922.
John Murphy, 56 Belview Buildings, Thomas Street Dublin. Found guilty of having in his possession two bombs at Earn Street Dublin on the 30th of October 1922.

Al three were arrested on the 30th of October after an attack on Free State Troops at Oriel House Dublin.


Colley and Cole memorial, Yellow Road (Image Credit: Eirigi DNE)

On Yellow Road in Whitehall, a small memorial amidst terraced houses honours the victims of an atrocity. This memorial marks the spot where the bodies of Alfred Colley and Seán Cole were found on 26 August 1922.

1922 – Anti-Treaty IRA members Leo Murray and Rodney Murphy, Deans Grange are shot in their beds at lodge house of Newpark Lodge, Stillorgan, Dublin. Another, John Joe Stephens, Bellek, Fermanagh is taken from his lodgings at 7 Gardiner Place and shot at Naas Road, Dublin, the following day. National Army or CID personnel are assumed to be responsible.
On Monday the 6th of November 1922 a prisoner at Limerick Jail was shot dead by a soldier of the National Army who was guarding the prison at the time. The prisoner, Michael Buckley, had been warned several time to stop making hand signals to another prisoner, after several warnings the guard shot Buckley dead.



On the 10th of January 1923 Bernie Radford and Con McCarthy, 3rd Battalion, South Wexford Brigade IRA, were killed in action against Free State forces at Spenserstown. Together with five comrades they were surrounded while billeted in the stables of a local farm. Despite being surrounded and outnumbered they engaged the Free State forces in a fierce gun battle which lasted well over a half an hour. Running short on ammunition they were eventually force to attempt a break out and it was while carrying out a rearguard action that allowed the rest of the group to ascape the two men were mortally wounded. In the words of one of the Free State soldiers present " they made a determined stand right to the end" .

Both were young men. Bernie was 23 and con was 24. Both were local men, popular and respected throughout the area. Primarily both were commited Republicans. Volunteers in the Irish Republican Army, they were totally opposed to the treaty of 1922 and dedicated to the establishment of a 32 county All-Ireland Republic.

In June of that year Bernie's brother Mick Radford, while unnarmed and under a cease fire, was shot dead by Free State forces.

On the 22nd June 1923, IRA Volunteer Michael Radford of the South Wexford Brigade, was shot unarmed and left to die by Free State soldiers at Ballybuick, Tomhaggard, Co. Wexford.

On the 2nd of May 1923 27 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Volunteers escaped from the County Jail in Wexford. One of the escapees was Michael (Mick) Radford. He was still on the run on the 22nd of June when he was shot. Radford was unarmed and although shot and mortally wounded on the evening of the 22nd he was left to die and his body not recovered until the next day. He was shot twice at The Cotts, Tacusmshane, County Wexford.

Novemer 8 1922: Lieutenant James (Jim) Spain, A Coy, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade, was seized and shot in revenge for an Anti-Treaty attack on Free-State troops drilling in Wellington Barracks in which one soldier a civilian and two Anti-Treaty fighters were killed and 18 soldiers gravely wounded. . He was wounded and made his way to a house on Donore Avenue. He was dragged out of the house by Free State soldiers and shot dead, he was unarmed.

November 18 1922: Four Anti-Treaty IRA fighters are killed when a land mine they are preparing on the Naas road near Dublin explodes prematurely.

A Free State lorry, driving from Dundalk is destroyed by a remotely detonated landmine in Carrickmacross. One soldier is killed and ten are badly injured. IRA fighters took the wounded men’s weapons and equipment but also tried to give them first aid.

The late and famous Miley Fanning. Miley was an active member of the Waterford IRA during the War of Independence and into the civil war. I understand that he escaped from incarceration on five separate occasions.
 Dick Barrett who was executed on December 8 1922: Following the Irish War of Independence, Richard Barrett supported the Anti-Treaty IRA

18/12/1922 On Monday the 18th of December Martin Joyce junior was shot dead at his home in Maumtrasna County Mayo

On April 23 1923: Daniel Murphy (a blacksmith from Knocknagoshel) is arrested at his forge and taken to a field where earlier , five Pro-Treaty officers and men had been killed by a trigger mine. Murphy was shot and his body found in the evening.

29 December 1922 - Frank Lawlor was aware that CID agents were looking for him. He was tracked down to a friends house in Ranelagh and taken from there by the CID. His body was recovered at Milltown Golf Club. Nothing was heard of Lawlor until the 1st of January 1923 when his body was found on Orwell Road.

Frank Lawlor, killed on 29th December 1922. His death, seen in the context of what came before, now looks unremarkable. The Republican Wolfe Tone annual of 1961 lists him as number 46 out of a total of 113 “unauthorised murders” of Republicans during the civil war. For good measure, they list another 77 “authorised murders” or executions and another 10 who died in imprisonment.

On Monday the 6th of November 1922 a prisoner at Limerick Jail was shot dead by a soldier of the Free State Army who was guarding the prison at the time. The prisoner, Michael Buckley, had been warned several time to stop making hand signals to another prisoner, after several warnings the guard shot Buckley dead.

22 April, 1923 : Free State troops surround Frank Aiken, Paidrag Quinn and Sean Quinn, the leaders of the Anti-Treaty forces in the Dundalk area, in a safe house in Castlebellingham. A firefight breaks out in which the two Quinns are wounded - Sean mortally - and subsequently captured. In the confusion, Aiken manages to slip away....

Between the IRA election of Frank Aiken and the Castlebellingham incident (ie on 21 April 1923) IRA Captain Martin Hogan , from Dromineer in County Tipperary , was killed in action in Poulacapple , Tipperary .

There are conflicting reports on where exactly Captain Martin Hogan was killed by Free Staters : some reports have it that he was killed in action in Poulacapple , Tipperary, whilst others state that he was killed on the Gracepark Road in Whitehall, Dublin

 Captain Michael Cull, who was shot dead by Free State forces during a raid on Ovens’ hardware and grocery store in the village of Ballyconnell County Cavan. on the 6th of January 1923.

There was however one more incident that brought the series of tragedies set off by the death of Michael Cull at Ballyconnell on January 7 1923 to a close. As the National Army troops traversed the Arigna hills they blew up the dugouts and mine tunnels where the guerrillas had been camped out. One such dugout was inhabited at the time by two IRA Volunteers, Patrick Tynan and James Cull, the brother of Michael. Both died in the explosion on February 27 1923. Their funerals were raided by a party of Free State troops in an armoured car, who lined up and searched all the male mourners

Ned Bofin himself, who had been nicknamed in the press, ‘the Irish De Wet’ (after the Boer guerrilla leader of 1899-1902) was captured on March 25th 1923.

January 26 1923: Three Anti-Treaty IRA prisoners executed in Birr. One is William Conroy, another is Patrick Cunningham (from Tullamore, Co. Offaly) and the third is Colm Kelly (Tullamore, Co. Offaly).
The execution of Offaly IRA Volunteers Joseph Byrne and Patrick Geraghty : Joseph Byrne from Cruith, Daingean, and Rochfordbridge native Patrick Geraghty have had an automatic pistol at Croghan on 10th November 1922. Byrne, 25, was an Adjutant in the 3rd Battalion (Tyrrellspass), Offaly No. 1 Brigade IRA. Geraghty, 33, was O/C of the same Battalion. Republicans were adamant that both men were unarmed when captured and that they faced trumped up charges. According to the 'Midland Tribune' newspaper Geraghty fired on Free State troops and a brisk exchange of rifle fire took place. The 'Offaly Independent' reported Free State troops surrounding a farmhouse where there was a fierce exchange of shots. Byrne apparently surrendered while Geraghty escaped and took cover in a field beside the house, where he blazed away at the troops with a 'Peter-the- Painter' automatic pistol.

Molly Walsh,    Kilmacthomas

Molly Walsh, was the only daughter and eldest child of Maurice and Catherine Walsh (nee Callaghan). She was born in Kilmacthomas in 1894. She had five brothers, Richard, Michael, Patrick and John. Molly was an active member of the local branch of Cumann na mBan during the War of Independence.

Molly's brother, John was a member of Thomas Keating's column of the west Waterford Brigade and fought in the War of Independence and the subsequent Civil War on the anti-treaty side. He was arrested in March 1923 by the Free State army and taken to Kilkenny Jail. Molly told the story of how John and his comrades had decided not to co-operate or tell their names when there was a morning roll call in the prison. John was first in line and was beaten and shot for refusing to tell his name. He died on March 14th 1923 in the prison hospital. Molly travelled to Kilkenny to see him in a pony and trap when she got word of what happened but he was dead by the time she reached Kilkenny. He was brought home to Kilmacthomas to be waked and then buried in the Republican plot in Kilrossanty. Walsh's Place in Kilmacthomas is called after John Walsh. Molly always wore her "Black and Tan" Veterans medal proudly to all Easter Rising commemorations in subsequent years but spoke very little of those days in her life. Molly went on to marry Tom Power, The Hill, Kilmacthomas and had ten children.