During the Irish Civil war in April 11 1923: Waterford Anti-Treaty IRA Flying Column Leader Tom Keating is mortally wounded. He is transported in a horse and dray and is denied medical attention. The Dungarvan parish priest permits only one mass to be offered for him.
On hearing of the deaths of the four republican martyrs: Rory O'Connor, Liam Mellows, Dick Barrett and Joe McKelvey on December 8, 1922, Muriel MacSwiney is said to have remarked that they were better off dead than living in the new Free State, which she hated with a passion.
Peter Cassidy, James Fisher, John Gaffney and Richard Twohig, all from Dublin, were executed by the Free State Army on 17th November, 1922 at 7 a.m. They were tried by Court Martial under the Public Safety Act and found guilty of carrying revolvers.Their average age was just nineteen years. They were among the first of 77 men of the Republican Forces to be executed during the Civil War and over 150 murdered after capture.

 Captain Tadhg Kennefick, Cork No. 1 Brigade, Irish Republican Army, who was killed by Free State Forces on the 8th September 1922, while on the way to his mothers’ funeral.

He received a horrific death, under the orders of the Free-State who had him dragged behind the back of a Free State truck, while his hands were tied together. He was then beaten with rifle butts in the face and on his body, losing several teeth and incurring vicious wounds and was eventually shot twice in the head and his body dumped behind a wall just outside Coachford Village, Co. Cork. His name is also recorded as Kenefick.

Dan Breen utterly rejected the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which made him, like many others, angry and embittered:
 Captain Tadhg Kennifick, Cork No. 1 Brigade IRA, was killed by the Free State Army on the 8th September 1922, while on the way to his mothers' funeral. He received a horrific death, under the orders of General Dalton, who had him dragged behind the back of a Free State truck, while his hands were tied together. He was then beaten with rifle butts in the face and on his body, losing several teeth and incurring vicious wounds and was eventually shot twice in the head and his body dumped behind a wall just outside Coachford Village, Co. Cork

Executions December 8 1922: According to the official announcemen The execution took place this morning at Mountjoy Gaol of the following persons taken in arms against the Free State Government: — Rory O’Connor, Liam Mellowes, Joseph McKelvey, and Richard Barrett

1 July – Free State troops take Republican outposts in the south of Dublin city and throw a cordon around their concentration on O'Connell street.Republican outposts at the Swan Hotel on Aungier street and at Harcourt Road and Adelaide Road are cleared by National Army troops equipped with armoured cars and artillery. About 400 IRA prisoners are taken in the operation

Commandant Sean Bergin,
OC Flying Column, 1st Battalion South Roscommon Brigade, IRA
:

.

Sean, from Connolly Street, Nenagh, was shot dead while a prisoner at Loughlin Wood.Co Roscommon

. The 1923 hunger-strike
had its after effects, health-wise, too. Joe Lacey, Wexford, continued to decline
after the end of the hunger strike, and died in the Curragh Military Hospital on
24 December 1923

On the 22nd June 1923, IRA Volunteer Michael Radford of the South Wexford Brigade, was shot unarmed and left to die by Free State soldiers at Ballybuick, Tomhaggard, Co. Wexford.

On the 2nd of May 1923 27 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Volunteers escaped from the County Jail in Wexford. One of the escapees was Michael (Mick) Radford. He was still on the run on the 22nd of June when he was shot. Radford was unarmed and although shot and mortally wounded on the evening of the 22nd he was left to die and his body not recovered until the next day. He was shot twice at The Cotts, Tacusmshane, County Wexford.

September 9 1922: Anti-Treaty IRA  forces led by Sean Hyde carry out a successful attack on Kenmare. There are about 84 men in the attacking party and Tom ‘Scarteen’ O’Connor the Pro-Treaty O/C (and his brother John) are killed during the attack  The Anti-Treaty IRA  forces capture 110 rifles, 2 Lewis machine guns and considerable ammunition. They also capture 120 Pro-Treaty men but they had to be let go.

On Tuesday the 12th of September 1922 a 21 year old medical student was admitted to the Adelaide Hospital having suffer gunshot wound in an incident on bridge Street Dublin City. The young man died in a scuffle with National Army troops after he tried to escape from detention. The man was named as:

Sean McEvoy of 2 Ashbrooke Terrace, Leeson Street Dublin.

Sean McEvoy is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery, the dedication to him on the family headstone reads

and my fond and only son

SEÁN McEVOY, A.S.U., Capt. 4th Batt, D.B.I.R.A.

who died for Ireland

(at Bishop St) 12th Sep. 1922, aged 21 years.

Joseph (Joe) Lacey died from complications as a result of Hunger Strike at the Curragh Hospital on the 24th of December 1923. He was 25 years old and the brother of Captain Denis (Dinny)Lacey who had been killed in action in March 1923 while fighting on the Anti-Treaty I.R.A. side. While his brother is remembered well in song and story, Joe's life and death was no less courageous and honourable and deserves to be remembered.
6 August 1922: Anti-Treaty IRA fighters ambush a Free State provisions column at Knockeen crossroads in Kerry. One National Army officer is killed and several privates are wounded.


 1922:September 14 1922: Drumshambo barracks in County Leitrim is seized by Republicans after successful ambush of National Army troops.

A skirmish takes place at Donoughmore, County Cork. Two Anti-Treaty IRA men are killed.
Press reports say that a total of six Anti-Treaty and six pro-treaty troops are killed in an ambushes at Blarney.
Republican fighters open fire on Free State troops landing by sea at CourtmacSherry in Cork. Three Anti-Treaty fighters and one Free State soldier are killed.
In Killarney, Free State troops break into the houses of six women Republicans and paint their bodies green.

August 9 1922: Fighting between South Tipperary Anti-Treaty forces (led by Dinny Lacey and Dan Breen) and Pro-Treaty forces led by Prout at Redmondstown. The use of 18-pounders by the Pro-Treaty forces is decisive and the Anti-Treaty forces retire towards the Nire valley with their forces largely intact.
Seven men were executed in the Glasshouse, in the Curragh Camp by the Free State army on December 19 in the biggest official executions of the Civil War. They were Patrick Bagnall and Patrick Mangan, Fairgreen, Kildare; Joseph Johnston, Station Road, Kildare; Bryan Moore and Patrick Nolan, Rathbride, Kildare; Stephen White, Abbey St. Kildare and James O’ Connor, Bansha, Co. Tipperary. These seven men, along with Comdt. Thomas Behan were found in a dug-out at Mooresbridge, on the edge of the Curragh, on the night of December 13. They were under the command of Comdt. Bryan Moore, 38, a veteran IRA officer, and comprised a section of the 6th Battn. Column
Michael (Mick) Mansfield, Staff Engineer, Waterford Brigade, I. R. A. in uniform and holding a pistol. Michael fought in the War of Independence and on the Republican side in the following Civil War
Charles 'Rodney' Murphy
Charles Murphy of Deansgrange. Killed along with Leo Murray of Charlemont Avenue, Dun Laoghaire, during a Free State raid on the gate-house of Newpark Lodge, Stillorgan, September 2nd 1922. Both men are buried in the Republican Plot, Deansgrange Cemetery
Jim Mansfield, in uniform was O. C. of the 3rd Waterford Battalion of I. R. A. during the War Of Independence and the Civil War. He escaped to Canada after the cease fire.

1923 IRA Hunger Strike

In Feb of 1923, 23 members of Cumann na mBan (including Mary and Annie MacSwiney, Lily Brennan and Nellie Ryan, sister-in-law of the Free State's Commander-in-Chief and Defence Minister Richard Mulcahy) went on strike for 34 days over illegal arrest and imprisonment without trial of prisoners. The strike resulted in the release of the women hunger-strikers. On 23 May 1923, the Irish Civil War officially ended, but the state continued to go after republicans, keeping 12,000 men and women in prison and persecuting and harrassing countless others. By October of 1923 tension was at an all-time high in the prisons and camps because of conditions and with no release in sight. On 13 October 1923, Michael Kilroy, OC of the IRA pows in Mountjoy, announced a mass strike by 300 prisoners, and it soon spread to other jails, and within days 7,033 republicans were on hunger strike. The figures given by Sinn Féin at the time were Mountjoy Jail 462; Cork Jail 70; Kilkenny Jail 350; Dundalk Jail 200; Gormanstown Camp 711; Newbridge Camp 1,700; Tintown 1,2,3, Curragh Camp 3,390; Harepark Camp 100; and, 50 women in the North Dublin Union.

October 13 1923: Noel Lemass, Capt in Anti-Treaty IRA  is found dead near Glencree in the Dublin mountains. Noel Lemass was a member of the 3rd Battalion, Dublin Brigade IRA
On 11 November 1922: Patrick Lynch of Moyrisk was unarmed when he was shot dead at his house. At Currahane Sands beyond Ardfert a drunken raiding party succeeded in capturing Eugene Fitzgerald at his aunt's house. On the journey to Tralee jail his left leg was broken and crushed to a pulp and he was shot through the side in an attempt to get him to reveal the whereabouts of the local IRA column. He died from his wounds a couple of months later on 16 January 1923.

October 25 1922: 1922 – Two Free State soldiers are killed, one in a battle near Abbeydorney, Co Kerry, the other by a sniper in Dundalk.

1922 – At an action near Castletownroche, Co Cork, three IRA fighters are reported by the press to have been killed and nine wounded, having returned to the village for a funeral

29 August 1922: Six Free State soldiers are killed in three separate ambushes. Two in Tullamore, and one in Macroom, and two in an ambush and firefight between Kilrglin and Tralee in County Kerry. An attack is also made on Clonakilty in which one Free State officer is killed. Three Republican fighters are reported killed in fighting in Cork.
IRA Volunteer John Linnane was shot in the head whilst surrendering at Trieneragh, Co. Kerry by Free State Forces, on Friday the 13th of April 1923.
John Linnane was born in Ballydonoghue Co. Kerry in 1897, to a farming family. He was a member of the Irish Volunteers from its re-organisation in Listowel in 1917. He was a Volunteer of the Listowel Company, 6th Battalion, Kerry No. 1 Brigade

August 29 1922: In Maryborough Jail, where 600 IRA prisoners are being held, the Republicans riot and set fire to their cells.

On July 28 1922 there was an IRA ambush of free state soldiers near Abbeyleix on the main road to Maryborough(Portlaoise). A mine exploded and fire was exchanged.After the battle 21 republicans are captured and two free state soldiers are killed.. The captured Volunteers were questioned by Michael Collins, and were lucky not to escape with internment in the Curragh.

Dan Breen utterly rejected the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which made him, like many others, angry and embittered:

I would never have handled a gun or fired a shot… to obtain this Treaty… writing on the second anniversary of Martin Savage's death, do you suppose that he sacrificed his life in attempting to kill one British Governor-General to make room for another British Governor-General?

On April 11 1923: Waterford Anti-Treaty IRA Flying Column Leader Tom Keating is mortally wounded. He is transported in a horse and dray and is denied medical attention. The Dungarvan parish priest permits only one mass to be offered for him.
August 7 1922: Heavy fighting takes place at Newcastle West, Co Limerick. Free State troops, advancing from Rathkeale, take the town with armoured cars and infantry supported by artillery. During the 12 hour battle, a party of republicans is caught in machine gun fire from one of the Free State armoured cars, taking many casualties. The Republican headquarters is shelled by field guns and they eventually retreat along the Cork road. Press reports say that 12 Anti-Treaty fighters are killed in the action. National Army casualties are reported as, ‘less than those of the irregulars.

December 26 1920: John ‘Flyer’ Nyhan, one of the Kilmichael ambushers, is captured at Shannonvale, Co. Cork and imprisoned in Ballykinlar.

John 'Flyer' Nyhan 1892-1934
Born Clonakilty. Became Quartermaster of his local batallion and Staff Captain of Cork No. 1 Brigade. Jailed in March 1920, he went on hunger strike for 21 days and was released in June of that year. Played a major role in the Kilmichael ambush, but was captured six weeks later and held until the end of the war. During the Civil War was hit by six bullets when Free State troops tried to capture him, but he managed to escape.

IRA Volunteer John Linnane was shot in the head whilst surrendering at Trieneragh, Co. Kerry by Free State Forces, on Friday the 13th of April 1923.

John Linnane was born in Ballydonoghue Co. Kerry in 1897, to a farming family. He was a member of the Irish Volunteers from its re-organisation in Listowel in 1917. He was a Volunteer of the Listowel Company, 6th Battalion, Kerry No. 1 Brigade

October 10 1922: Peadar Breslin, a Republican captured after the fall of the Four Courts, is shot dead during an attempt to escape from Mountjoy Prison in Dublin. Three Free State soldiers are also killed in the fight during the escape attempts.
November 171922: Philip Gilgunn was a volunteer of the Irish Republican Army who was killed in action in Cluainín, Co. Leitrim during a battle with Irish Free State forces during the Irish Civil War on 18 November 1922.Photo:Roadside memorial outside Cluainín to IRA volunteer Phil Gilgunn, killed in November 1922 during the Irish Civil War


The Brave Members of the Macroom IRA during the Civil War
Liam (William Joseph) Mellows (25 May 1892 – 8 December 1922 was an Irish republican and Sinn Féin politician. Born in England, Mellows grew up in County Wexford in Ireland. He was active with the Irish Republican Brotherhood and Irish Volunteers, and participated in the Easter Rising in County Galway, and the War of Independence
Joe McKelvey We are gathered here to pay a solemn tribute to one who was a true soldier of Ireland. General McKelvey was a man who died for his principles, and he thought it was the noblest and truest thing a man could do. When he walked across the yard of Mountjoy Prison and stood before the firing squad, he did so confident in the thought that the people he left behind would carry on where he had left off
7 August 1922 Joe Hudson (18) lived at 3 Carrolls Cottages, Glasthule and was in command of a small group of ten IRA volunteers in the area. They were proving to be very successful locally against the Free State Army. This group operated down to Bray and across to Dean's Grange, where another group was based. On 7 August 1922, a group of Free State Army officers left Portobello Barracks, acting on information that a meeting was in progress in Hudson's home. The Free State Army officers, in two cars, pulled up near Hudson's, but a Fianna member on sentry duty blew his whistle to alert those inside Hudson's house. The occupants of the house scattered through the back garden as shots were exchanged. Hudson was injured and he dropped his weapon. A Free state officer approached him as he lay on the ground and shot him at point-blank range. He died next day in Dún Laoghaire Hospital, but not before he gave a deathbed declaration that he had had his hands up when shot. The leader of the Free State Army  group was Commandant Niall McNeill, whose father Eoin MacNeill was a minister in the Provisional Government.
On January 11th, 1923, the railway terminus at Sligo was mined and sprinkled with petrol by armed men.
The building was totally destroyed.
Seven engines were sent down the line towards the goods' yard.
One of them smashed through the concrete wall and plunged into the harbour.
Damage was estimated at £80,000.
Earlier, on November 15th, 1922, the Sligo railway signal box was destroyed.
On December 14th, 1922, armed men detached an engine from a train near Ballymote and sent it full steam ahead.
It was 'derailed' by officials on to a bank, without causing loss of life


Roscrea Excecutions On the seventh of January 1922 the Treaty was passed into the Dail by 64 votes to 57.Eamon de Valera,Cathal Brugha and Austin Stack resign and the country is divided. This was the start of a shameful civil war that was to pit brother against brother. People who had fought shoulder to shoulder now found themselves on opposite sides in this bloody conflict that was to leave 1250 irish men and women dead. 77 of these were excecuted.
Among those were 4 Tipperary men excecuted in Roscrea by the free state army.

February 4 1923: 1923 – In Shorne, Rathmore, Co Kerry, Anti-Treaty IRA fighter Micheal McSweeney is shot dead by Free State troops.

Free State troops use IRA prisoners to clear a blocked road near Bandon, Cork, a booby trap mine explodes while they are clearing a road block, killing two prisoners and injuring seven.

Four Republicans, who subsequently became known as the “Drumboe Martyrs”, were executed by a Free State firing squad in Donegal in March 1923. None of the four was from that county 
Drumboe Castle where the Drumboe Martyrs were held before they were executed
It was the hazards of the guerrilla struggle, firstly against the British and later against Free State forces, that brought together Comdt Gen Charlie Daly from Firies, Co Kerry; Brig Comdt Sean Larkin of Ballagherty, Co Derry; and Lieuts Dan Enright and Tim O'Sullivan, both from Listowel, Co Kerry. The small force of republicans in Donegal held out for a brief period before being compelled to withdraw to the mountains. On the night of 2 November 1922, following a tip-off from an informer, Free State forces from Falcarragh surrounded two houses belonging to John and Frank Sharkey at Mennabul, Dunlewey, in the shadow of Errigal mountain. There they found Charlie Daly, Sean Larkin, Dan Enright and Tim O'Sullivan along with six other men. The men were arrested before being taken to Drumboe Castle, where they were held for five months. On 18 January 1923 they received their sentence from a Military Court. The four young men were sentenced to death by firing squad.

On the morning of 14 March 1923, some six weeks before the end of the Civil War, the four, Charlie Daly (26), Sean Larkin (26), Dan Enright (23) and Tim O'Sullivan (23), were marched from their cell at Drumboe Castle to an improvised firing range about 300 yards up a gently sloping field in the woods at Drumboe. It was at this spot that the four men were executed by a Free State firing squad and their bodies were thrown into a ready-made grave.

Remembering IRA Volunteers James McEnery, Edward Greaney & Reginald Hathway who were executed by Free State forces on the 25th of April 1923, at Ballymullen Barracks, County Kerry.

Reginald Hathaway Stennings Alias Walter Stephens, a 23 year old Englishman, a native of London.

July 27 1922: Oscar Traynor and a number of other senior Anti-Treaty IRA officers are arrested and later imprisoned in Gormanston:

Gormanston Camp (Irish: Campa Rinn Mhic Ghormáin) is a military camp in Ireland and consists of approximately 260 acres. It is used for air-ground and air-defence training. It is located between Balbriggan and Drogheda along the east coastline of Ireland in County Meath

A civilian is shot dead by Free State troops in a raid on a shop at Capel Street, Dublin.
A National Army convoy is ambushed near Aughatubrid, County Kerry. Two Free State soldiers are killed and two wounded. One Republican is wounded and captured
September – A Free State garrison at Oldcastle, County Meath is attacked and forced to surrender its weapons. A mine is detonated against their barracks and fire is opened with machine guns. A civilian is killed in the crossfire

 Five members of the Irish Republican Army who were executed by the Free State, on the 20th of January 1923, at Custume Barracks, Athlone, County Westmeath.

Thomas Hughes, from Bogginfin, Athlone, who was Lieutenant Commandant, 'Officer Commanding Munitions', Western Division I.R.A. He had served as Captain with the 3rd Engineers Dublin Brigade and was also 'Officer Commanding Munitions' in Athlone.

Michael Walsh, born in Derrymore, County Galway. He was Vice-Commandant, 2nd Battalion No. 1 Brigade, Western Division.

Herbert Collins, a native of Kickeen, Headford, County Galway, who was captured at Currahan and charged with being in possession of arms and ammunition.

Stephen Joyce, a native of Derrymore, Caherlistrane, County Galway and Martin Burke, a native of Caherlistrane, County Galway - he was Officer Commanding, Active Service Unit Number 3 Brigade, Western Division.

There were five executions on the 20th of January 1923 in Athlone, where the Western Command of the army was being entangled in the web. They are of particular interest to us because all five had Galway or Western connections, as had the sixth person, General Tom Maguire, TD who was also sentenced to death, but possibly because of his status as TD the death sentence was not carried out in his case. On Saturday January 20th, 1923 those five men were taken out in Custume Barracks, Athlone, lined by a wall and, on the orders of Highest Command in the Free State Forces, executed.

January 1923: Anti-Treaty IRA prisoners executed in Dundalk

In yesterday's papers it was announced that the Government had decided to hand over the bodies of the men executed during the civil strife in 1922-23. The intimation to the relatives stated that if they did not notify their intention of claiming the remains before Monday next, the military authorities would have them buried in sanctified ground.

Almost eighty executions took place altogether, and six of these were in Dundalk. At the County Jail on the morning of January , 13th 1922 three young men, Thos. McKeown, Piedmont, Bellurgan ; John McNulty, Carromannon, Balleeks, Co. Armagh, and Thomas Murray, Kilcarn, Navan, were shot on a charge of being in possession of firearms. Little over a week later (Jan. 22nd), three more also paid the supreme penalty at the Military Barracks. They were Jas. Melia, Bridge Street, Dundalk; Thomas Lennon, Dowdallshill and Joseph Ferguson, Gyles' Quay. The two former had been captured with arms at Dowdallshill on 7th January, and Ferguson was found in possession of a revolver at Lordship Hall on the same date.

On this day in 1922 4 September: Anti-Treaty IRA unit under Liam Pilkington takes Dromhaire barracks, County Leitrim.. Free State garrison there surrenders.

February 11 1923: Two Anti-Treaty army men from Tralee (Michael Sinnot and James O’Connor) are killed in their dug-out in Mrs Lyons’ shed at Currahane Strands (between Tralee Bay and Ballyheigue).

Ned Bofin’s IRA column in late 1922 and early 1923 raided with impunity from their lair in the Arigna mountains, repeatedly humiliating Free State garrisons in the county towns.

Beginning in late 1922 the anti-Treaty column based in Arigna began systematic dismantling of the Free State security apparatus in the region. In November 1922 Ballinamore Civic Guard (police) station was held up and the Guards’ uniforms taken.

Emboldened by their easy victory over the unarmed Guards, on December 8, the anti-Treatyites attacked and overpowered the Free State military garrison at Carrickonshannon, killing one soldier (a civilian was also killed in the exchange of fire) and seizing the arms and motor transport of the soldiers.

There were further attacks on barracks at Dowra and Manorhamilton before Bofins’ men had their greatest coup, at Ballinamore on January 28 1923. There, the barracks was taken after a short fire fight and then blown up. The train station was also destroyed and as well as losing their arms and tenders, the 35 Free State soldiers were rounded up and taken back the Arigna mountains as prisoners.

27 August 1922: Three National Army soldiers are killed in ambush near Nenagh, County Tipperary, when a mine is exploded under their lorry and they are fired on by Anti-Treaty fighters. Several more men are injured in the shooting. Another two are killed in a separate mine attack near Bushfield, Tipperary.
Anti-Treaty IRA units mount an ambush of Free State troops at Glenflesk, near Killarney, County Kerry. The Free State troops bring up an 18 pounder artillery piece and eventually drive off their attackers. Press reports say that the bodies of 20 Anti-Treaty fighters are found at the scene.
A soldier is shot dead in an ambush near Macroom, Cork.
Two Anti-Treaty IRA men are captured in Tralee, Kerry and shot by Free State troops. One of them, James Healy, survives and escapes.
Free State troops assault an Anti-Treaty IRA position at Convent hill, near Newport, County Mayo. They are repulsed with seven men wounded.
 Commandant Neill Plunkett O'Boyle  in mid-May 1923, 'Plunkett' and his men were in a safe house in Knocknadruce, County Wicklow when, in the early hours of the morning, they were surrounded by Free State forces under the command of a Belfast man, Felix Mc Corley. IRA man Tom Heavey, who was in the house at the time, explained what transpired : "Plunkett wanted the mother and daughter to be let out of the house. The Staters wouldn't hear of that and threatened to bomb them out. That was a favourite trick, throwing grenades through the window. This put Plunkett in a spot as he couldn't let the women be injured. So he said, 'Let me come out'. Out he came with his hands up and walked slowly towards a stone stile at the right hand corner of the house. When he got there he spoke a few words with this Free State Officer named McCorley, a Belfast man perched on a stone ditch above him. Suddenly McCorley raised his revolver and shot Plunkett in the eye, the bullet passing through his upraised hands. For good measure he shot him again through the head. He just shot him. I saw it all. It was cold blooded murder. The others in the house were rounded up and taken away.

On Thursday the 30th of November 1922 the following Anti treaty soldiers were executed, after being found guilty by Court Martial. The executions took place in Dublin at 8.15am.

Joseph Spooner, 67 McCaffrey’s Estate Mount Brown Dublin City. Found guilty of having in his possession a revolver without proper authority at Erne Street Dublin on the 30th of October 1922.
Patrick Farrelly, 67 Chancery Lane Dublin, found guilty of possession of a bomb at Erne Street Dublin on the 30th of October 1922.
John Murphy, 56 Belview Buildings, Thomas Street Dublin. Found guilty of having in his possession two bombs at Earn Street Dublin on the 30th of October 1922.

They were captured with revolvers and bombs after an attempt was made to blow up Oriel House. When it is announced in the Dail that these executions have taken place, they are denounced by Tom Johnson as anarchy and he demands that the military trials be made public. He is supported by Darrell Figgis.

Peter Cassidy, James Fisher, John Gaffney and Richard Twohig, all from Dublin, were executed by the Free State Army on 17th November, 1922 at 7 a.m. They were tried by Court Martial under the Public Safety Act and found guilty of carrying revolvers.Their average age was just nineteen years. They were among the first of 77 men of the Republican Forces to be executed during the Civil War and over 150 murdered after capture.

On the day these young men were executed, Thomas Johnson TD, Leader of the Labour Party, rose in the Dáíl to address those assembled. In his hand he had a copy of the evening newspaper with the horrifying announcement of the first executions by the Free State Government. With great emotion he spoke:

'I prophesy a deep revulsion of feeling against the Army and the Government. I cannot believe that that announcement states facts which would justify the execution of these men. The possession of a revolver does not justify the execution of a man, lawfully or unlawfully, and no one, I believe, despite the decision of the Dáil, and no one in this Dáil, in his heart of hearts, believes that the possession of a revolver warrants the execution of the man or woman who possessed it.'

On the 30th of September 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treaty army was shoot by troops of the National Army in Ballyseedy Wood County Kerry. The Anti Treaty soldier was allegedly responsible for the death of National Army Captain Burke who had died in an ambush a month earlier. The soldier was,

John Galvin a native of Killorglin County Kerry.

There were two versions of the death of Galvin, the National Army alleges he was killed when the convoy transporting him came under attack from Anti Treaty forces, the Anti Treaty side alleged he was executed for killing Captain Burke.

Following the failure of republicans to recapture Killorglin the prisoners were to be transferred to Tralee. En route all the prisoners except one, John Jack Galvin, were forced to remove felled trees from the road. When they returned to the trucks he was missing. Next day his body was found behind a tree in Ballyseedy Wood where the trucks had halted.

On 29 October 1922, the Republicans managed to recapture Clifden from the around 100 National troops stationed there. The attacking force consisted of around 350 men, who came by motor car but mostly by sea. They also had with them an "armoured car", called The Queen of the West, and made from a ship’s engine boiler plates. This was used to advance towards a defended barracks building in order to drop off mines in front it, thus partly demolishing it
September 24 1922: The Free State evacuates its garrison at Newport, Co Mayo due to the intense guerrilla activity in the area.

A 10-year-old boy killed in a Civil War shootout in Tipperary may have been the youngest IRA member during the Irish revolution:

Edmund Quirke took a bullet through the head when anti-Treaty IRA in his house and his neighbour’s were engaged in a battle with National Army forces in February 1923.

His IRA service and his death have emerged as he is one of more than 1,600 people whose applications — or those of their families — for pensions, disability or wound allowances, or other payments, are made public for the first time today.

The son of farmer James Quirke was at home in Ashgrove near Bansha when a number of senior IRA figures came under attack there by National Army troops. His death certificate said the cause was a “bullet wound to the head accidentally received”.

In the same attack, south Tipperary Flying Column leader Dinny Lacey was also killed, along with fellow anti-Treaty fighters Michael Ryan, William McGrath, and Patrick McDonough.

Several notable incidents occurred in Pilkington's military career. On 25 October 1920 at Moneygold, eight miles from Sligo (between Grange and Cliffony in County Sligo), the IRA ambushed a nine-man Royal Irish Constabulary patrol, killing four and wounding two others  The IRA ambush was led by Sligo Brigade Commanding Officer (O/C) William Pilkington. On 4 September 1922, Anti-Treaty IRA unit under Liam Pilkington took the Dromhaire barracks, in County Sligo, because the Free State garrison in the Dromhaire barracks surrendered.

1923 - Anti-Treaty officer Thomas O'Sullivan, head of the local IRA battalion, is shot dead by Free State troops near Dingle.

Shots are exchanged between Republicans and Free State troops at the cemetery in Dundalk at the interment of the bodies of six Anti-Treaty fighters executed in January 1923. Several people are hit and one man dies of his wounds, Free State troops take a republican prisoner, Daniel Murphy, to Knocknagoshel, where

 5 National Army troops had been killed on 6 March and shoot him dead. Three Anti-Treaty prisoners are executed in Tralee. A National Army officer, Peter McNicholas, is killed in an ambush near Kiltimagh, Mayo. A Free State Lieutenant, Beehan, is shot dead in an ambush near Castleisland, Kerry, while escorting two Civic Guards    

Larry Sweeney was from Drummartin Terrace, Goatstown. He worked as a porter in St. John of God’s Hospital in Stillorgan. During the War of Independence, he was one of many anti-treaty I.R.A. Volunteers who fought with the Blackrock Company, and who were stationed primarily in the Rathfarnham Barracks. (The barracks was evacuated and destroyed by landmines not long before Larry's death.) He was arrested after an arms cache was discovered in the room he lived in on the hospital grounds. Soon after his release, he was killed by forces loyal to the Free State government at Castledermot in 1922. A newspaper report on the arrest reads as follows:

“A police sergeant on Thursday night discovered a quantity of arms, ammunition and other paraphernalia of war at St. John of God’s Hospital, Stillorgan. As a result of the investigation he arrested two employees of the institution, and placed them in the custody of two constables, who accompanied him. Later on, military, who had been informed of the discovery, arrived at the hospital and took possession of the numerous articles found in the apartments of the two employees. The two men were removed to Dublin. The men’s names are stated to be Laurence Sweeney and Michael Bird. The military are still in occupation of the hospital and its extensive grounds, and are pursuing a detailed search.”

‘The Lament for Larry Sweeney’ was written by the late Fr. Herman Nolan of Cabinteely. His father, Sean “Jackie” Nolan, was an anti-treaty Volunteer during the War of Independence who happened to be with Larry when he was killed. Jackie comments as follows:

“I was talking to Larry a few minutes before he got hit by the car: he was driving a load of Tipperary men in a car into town. They ran into a Free State post, where they had the road barricaded. He being the driver, they turned the machine gun on; he was riddled at the stirring wheel, and lucky enough, the three Tipperary men who were with him got away. I suppose he was about twenty… He was taken to Castledermot hospital; he died in about two hours in dreadful agony, but he got the rites of the church. Then he was taken home to Dundrum Chapel, and the boys that brought him came up here to this house; his mother was here with me.”

 Four young men from Dublin's South West Inner City who were executed by the Free State for their opposition to the 1921 Treaty under the hastily introduced Emergency Powers Act or as it later became to be known as "the retaliation act"

James Fisher was just 18 years old when he was killed. The young man lived most of his life in his close knit community. He was from Echlin Street and worked in the nearby Ruddells Cigarette Factory on James Street.

Richard Twohig it is believed was 21 years when he died at the hands of the newly liberated Irish Free State. Twohig lived in Connors Buildings just off James Street Harbour and he worked in the neighbouring Inchicore Works where he was employed by the Great Southern and Western Railway Company.

Both young men served in the 2nd Battalion of the IRA.

Peter Cassidy was 21 years old and John Gaffney just 20 years old when they were executed in Kilmainham Gaol by their former War Of Independence comrades.

The two young men from Ushers Quay were childhood friends. They were active Republicans and joined Na Fianna Eireann together before going on to serve in H Company of the 3rd Battalion of the IRA.

At the time of their arrest,court martial and execution both men worked in the Electric Light Section of Dublin Corporation.

All four Anti Treaty Volunteers were arrested for being in possession of small arms without "proper authority" a charge that had been made punishable by death by the Irish Free State Government since the 27th of September 1922. A desperate act implemented in haste in a vain attempt to quell savagely the growth of opposition to the 1921 Treaty that ended the War Of Independence and led to partition of the country with six northern counties remaining under British rule.

The men were tried by Court Martial,found guilty and executed by the new "National Army" in Kilmainham Gaol on the 17th of November 1922. They were to be the last executions in Kilmainham Gaol but not of the Irish Free State. Under the "retaliation act" seventy seven Anti Treaty Volunteers would be "officially" executed in total and many more simply murdered.

Ironically it was determined later that the fledgling Irish Free State Government did not have the actual authority decreed by Britain at the time it voted in the Emergency Powers Act,or as it was titled originally the Public Safety Bill at its time of implementation.

Speaking in favour of the act and it's savagery the President of Ireland W T Cosgrave said " They are dealing with the dregs of society,people who had no regard for life or property or all that people hold dear"

Fisher,Twohig,Cassidy and Gaffney were not "dregs of society" but politically committed young men who worked hard for their families,their communities and their vision of what a new Irish Republic should represent.


Liam Mellows, who led the Galway Rebels during Easter Week, was shot dead by the Irish Free State on December 8, 1922.

It was one of the first brutal executions of Anti-Treaty IRA Volunteers by the National Army during the Civil War. He was 30 years of age and had given his entire adult life to the cause of an Irish Republic.

William ‘Liam’ Mellows was born in 1892 in Lancashire, England. His father was a military officer and Liam and his brother Herbert, known as Barney, moved to Wexford in their childhood.

Inspired by their love of Irish history, the brothers became indefatigable organisers for Na Fianna Éireann boy scouts and the Irish Volunteers, formed in 1909 and 1913, respectively.

Of small stature, but physically fit, a non-drinker or smoker, Mellows’ sole relief from his life’s work of building an Irish Republic was playing his beloved fiddle for friends and comrades. Sent by HQ to organise the Galway Volunteers in March 1915, Mellows’ personal steel was cloaked by his inoffensive character

If you are having a problem finding your ancestor who may have fought in the 1916 Rising, why not get in touch with our genealogist.   For research on Dublin and  country areas  Tel 018400080  A fee will apply    -  email:fingalgenealogy@gmail.com     OR    rootsireland.ie

Republicans Executed by the Free State Government during the Civil War.

1922-1923

Nov.17th; James Fisher, Peter Cassidy, Richard Twohig, John Gaffney, Nov 24th: Erskine Childers,  Nov. 30th: Joseph Sponer, Patrick Farrelly, John Murphy,  Dec 8th: Rory O’Connor, Liam Mellows, Joseph McKelvey, Dec 19: Stephen White, Joseph Johnston, Patrick Mangan, Patrick Nolan, Brian Moore, James O’Connor, Patrick Bagnell. Dec 29th:  John Murphy, John Phelan, Jan 8th: Leo Dowling, Sylvester Heaney, Lawrence Sheeky, Anthony O’Reilly, Terence Brady:  Jan 13:  Thomas McKeown, John McNulty, Thomas Murray, Jan 15; Frederick Burke, Patrick Russell, Martin O’Shea, Patrick McNamara, James Lillis; Jan 20th: James Daly, James  Hanlon, Cornelius McMahon, Patrick Hennessy, Thomas Hughes, Michael Walsh, Herbert Collins, Stephen Joyce, Martin Burke:  Jan 22nd;   James Melia, Thomas Lennon, Joseph Ferguson;     Jan 26th; Patrick O’Reilly, Patrick Cunningham, William Conroy, Colum Kelly:  Jan27th; Patrick  Geraghty, Joseph Byrne:  Feb 26th:   Thomas Gibson:  Mar 13th; James O’Rourke, William Healy, James Parle, Patrick Hogan, John Creane:  Mar 14th Sean Larkin, Daniel Enright, Charles Daly;  April 11th;  James O’Malley, Francis Cunnane, Michael Monaghan, John Newell, John Maguire, Martin Moylan:  April 25th;     Richard Hathaway, James McEnery, Edward Greaney; April 26th, Patrick Mahoney, May 2nd Christopher Quinn.  

To the brave men of Kerry who were murdered by the Free state Soldiers 
Captain Michael Ahern, 6th Company, Kerry No.2 Brigade, Irish Republican Army, who was murdered  by Free State forces on the 25th of October 1922.
Erskine Childers was shot in Beggars Bush barracks on November 24th 1922,By the Freestate Army
On 26th August 1922, during the Irish Civil War, two senior Fianna Eireann officers, Sean Cole, Commandant of the 2nd Battalion (Dublin Brigade) and Alfred Colley, Commandant of the 1st Battalion (Dublin Brigade) were arrested by intelligence members of the National Army at Newcomen Bridge on the North Strand and taken to Yellow Road, Whitehall in North Dublin and shot dead.
On the 2nd of May 1923 27 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Volunteers escaped from the County Jail in Wexford. One of the escapees was Michael (Mick) Redford. He was still on the run on the 22nd of June when he was shot. Accounts of the shooting vary, the Anti-Treaty Republican side state Redford was unarmed and although shot and mortally wounded on the evening of the 22nd he was left to die and his body not recovered until the next day. He was shot twice at The Cotts, Tacusmshane, County Wexford.
29 October 1922: An Anti-Treaty IRA column under Michael Kilroy attacks and takes Clifden, County Galway, capturing 80 Free State soldiers, after a ten-hour gun battle. The IRA Colum burned the barracks  and take the Free State soldiers rifles before retreating.

On Thursday the 30th of November 1922 the following Anti treaty IRA soldiers were executed, after being found guilty by Court Martial. The executions took place in Dublin at 8.15am.

Joseph Spooner, 67 McCaffrey’s Estate Mount Brown Dublin City. Found guilty of having in his possession a revolver without proper authority at Erne Street Dublin on the 30th of October 1922.
Patrick Farrelly, 67 Chancery Lane Dublin, found guilty of possession of a bomb at Erne Street Dublin on the 30th of October 1922.
John Murphy, 56 Belview Buildings, Thomas Street Dublin. Found guilty of having in his possession two bombs at Earn Street Dublin on the 30th of October 1922.

Al three were arrested on the 30th of October after an attack on Free State Troops at Oriel House Dublin.



ColleyCole2.jpg

Colley and Cole memorial, Yellow Road (Image Credit: Eirigi DNE)

On Yellow Road in Whitehall, a small memorial amidst terraced houses honours the victims of an atrocity. This memorial marks the spot where the bodies of Alfred Colley and Seán Cole were found on 26 August 1922.

 IRA Volunteer Dan McCormack of Milltown Co. Galway, who died on the 15th of August 1929, from wounds received at the Headford Barracks attack on the 8th of April 1923. He lost his left arm above the elbow and right leg below the knee in the attack. The mark on his chin is from an exit wound.
1922 – Anti-Treaty IRA members Leo Murray and Rodney Murphy, Deans Grange are shot in their beds at lodge house of Newpark Lodge, Stillorgan, Dublin. Another, John Joe Stephens, Bellek, Fermanagh is taken from his lodgings at 7 Gardiner Place and shot at Naas Road, Dublin, the following day. National Army or CID personnel are assumed to be responsible.
September 2 1922: Republicans attack National Army troops while they are drilling in front of the City Club in Cork city. They drive up in a lorry and open machine-gun fire on the Free State troops, killing two and injuring six
On Monday the 6th of November 1922 a prisoner at Limerick Jail was shot dead by a soldier of the National Army who was guarding the prison at the time. The prisoner, Michael Buckley, had been warned several time to stop making hand signals to another prisoner, after several warnings the guard shot Buckley dead.

BERNIE RADFORD

CON McCARTHY

On the 10th of January 1923 Bernie Radford and Con McCarthy, 3rd Battalion, South Wexford Brigade IRA, were killed in action against Free State forces at Spenserstown. Together with five comrades they were surrounded while billeted in the stables of a local farm. Despite being surrounded and outnumbered they engaged the Free State forces in a fierce gun battle which lasted well over a half an hour. Running short on ammunition they were eventually force to attempt a break out and it was while carrying out a rearguard action that allowed the rest of the group to ascape the two men were mortally wounded. In the words of one of the Free State soldiers present " they made a determined stand right to the end" .

Both were young men. Bernie was 23 and con was 24. Both were local men, popular and respected throughout the area. Primarily both were commited Republicans. Volunteers in the Irish Republican Army, they were totally opposed to the treaty of 1922 and dedicated to the establishment of a 32 county All-Ireland Republic.

In June of that year Bernie's brother Mick Radford, while unnarmed and under a cease fire, was shot dead by Free State forces.

On the 22nd June 1923, IRA Volunteer Michael Radford of the South Wexford Brigade, was shot unarmed and left to die by Free State soldiers at Ballybuick, Tomhaggard, Co. Wexford.

On the 2nd of May 1923 27 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Volunteers escaped from the County Jail in Wexford. One of the escapees was Michael (Mick) Radford. He was still on the run on the 22nd of June when he was shot. Radford was unarmed and although shot and mortally wounded on the evening of the 22nd he was left to die and his body not recovered until the next day. He was shot twice at The Cotts, Tacusmshane, County Wexford.

Novemer 8 1922: Lieutenant James (Jim) Spain, A Coy, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade, was seized and shot in revenge for an Anti-Treaty attack on Free-State troops drilling in Wellington Barracks in which one soldier a civilian and two Anti-Treaty fighters were killed and 18 soldiers gravely wounded. . He was wounded and made his way to a house on Donore Avenue. He was dragged out of the house by Free State soldiers and shot dead, he was unarmed.

November 18 1922: Four Anti-Treaty IRA fighters are killed when a land mine they are preparing on the Naas road near Dublin explodes prematurely.

A Free State lorry, driving from Dundalk is destroyed by a remotely detonated landmine in Carrickmacross. One soldier is killed and ten are badly injured. IRA fighters took the wounded men’s weapons and equipment but also tried to give them first aid.

The late and famous Miley Fanning. Miley was an active member of the Waterford IRA during the War of Independence and into the civil war. I understand that he escaped from incarceration on five separate occasions.
 Dick Barrett who was executed on December 8 1922: Following the Irish War of Independence, Richard Barrett supported the Anti-Treaty Today we remember Dick Barrett who was executed on December 8 1922: Following the Irish War of Independence, Richard Barrett supported the Anti-Treaty IRA's refusal of authority to the Dail (civil government of the Irish Republic declared in 1919). He was opposed to the Anglo-Irish Treaty, calling for the elimination of English influence in Ireland. In April 1922 under the command of Rory O'Connor, Barrett, along with 200 other hard-line anti-treaty men, took over the Four Courts building in the centre of Dublin in defiance of the new Irish government. They wanted to provoke British troops, who were still in the country, into attacking them. They hoped this would restart the war with Britain and re-unite the IRA against their common enemy. Michael Collins tried desperately to persuade O'Connor and his men to leave the building before fighting broke out. In June 1922, after the Four Courts garrison had kidnapped J.J. O'Connell, a general in the new Free State Army, Collins shelled the Four Courts with borrowed British artillery in what became known as the Battle of Dublin. O'Connor surrendered following two days of fighting, and Barrett with 200 or so anti treaty IRA members, was arrested and held in Mountjoy Gaol Prison. This incident sparked the Irish Civil War – as fighting broke out around the country between pro and anti treaty factions.

After the assassination of Michael Collins a horrific era of tit-for-tat revenge killings ensued. The Government implemented martial law and enacted the necessary legislation to set up military courts. In November, the government began to execute Anti-Treaty prisoners, including Erskine Childers. In response, Liam Lynch, the Anti-Treaty Chief of Staff, gave an order that any member of the Dáil who had voted for the 'murder legislation' was to be shot on sight.IRA


18/12/1922 On Monday the 18th of December Martin Joyce junior was shot dead at his home in Maumtrasna County Mayo

July 31 1922: Anti-Treaty IRA in Dublin ambushes and destroys an armoured train in Inchicore.

Two Free State troops are killed in an ambush at Sugnagillow, Donegal. Another two are killed near Newport, Co Mayo.

September 2 1922: Two National Army soldiers are killed in an ambush at Watergrass Hill, Co Cork.

There are also attacks by Anti-Treaty fighters on Free State troops in Dublin city centre and Tallaght and Rathfarnham in Co Dublin. In the city centre ambush, one civilian is killed, and a Free State soldier and a civilian are wounded. Two Free State soldiers are wounded in the attack in Rathfranham and the RIC barracks there is destroyed.

Three CID police are shot in an ambush at Deans Grange, Dublin, one later dies.

Republicans attack Macroom, Co Cork with men and a captured armoured car. They withdraw after a seven-hour battle,

On April 23 1923: Daniel Murphy (a blacksmith from Knocknagoshel) is arrested at his forge and taken to a field where earlier , five Pro-Treaty officers and men had been killed by a trigger mine. Murphy was shot and his body found in the evening.

29 December 1922 - Frank Lawlor was aware that CID agents were looking for him. He was tracked down to a friends house in Ranelagh and taken from there by the CID. His body was recovered at Milltown Golf Club. Nothing was heard of Lawlor until the 1st of January 1923 when his body was found on Orwell Road.

Frank Lawlor, killed on 29th December 1922. His death, seen in the context of what came before, now looks unremarkable. The Republican Wolfe Tone annual of 1961 lists him as number 46 out of a total of 113 “unauthorised murders” of Republicans during the civil war. For good measure, they list another 77 “authorised murders” or executions and another 10 who died in imprisonment.

Sean Cole
Alf Colley,

25 August 1922. One of the most despicable murders of Republicans took place at Whitehall on this date. Alfie(Leo) Colley(18), Parnell Street, and Sean Cole(17), Buckingham Street, were two of the most senior Fianna officers in the Dublin Brigade of Fianna Eireann. They were picked up at Newcomen Bridge, North Strand, on their way home from an officers meeting at Marino. A witness stated that their abductors were wearing trench coats over Free State Army officers uniforms. Witnesses also saw them being shot dead at 'The Thatch', Pucks Lane,(Now Yellow Road), Whitehall, Dublin. Popular opinion at the time was that these killings were carried out as a reprisal for the death of Michael Collins earlier that week. (National newspapers reporting incident and inquest 27&28 August 1922)The Irish News reported that soon after 6pm a group of children and young people playing on the road were surprised when a large Ford car came to a sharp halt. There were five or six men inside - Cole and Colley and their abductors.

The two Fianna members were forced out of the car while the crowd was held back at gunpoint. One of the Free Staters tried to open a gate to a field - which was presumably to be the site of the executions - but the gate was locked. The two young men were heard to cry out: "But what is it for?"Cole and Colley were placed with their backs to the gate, held in position and killed with revolver shots to the body and head. Their killers then drove away from the scene. The sites of the executions of Sen Cole and Alf Colley are marked by small memorials.

13 September 1922; The Anti-Treaty IRA in Dublin mounts three separate ambushes of Free State troops at Stephen's Green, Mountjoy Square and O'Connell Bridge in the city centre. The ambushes, consisting of gun and grenade attacks, result in the death of one Republican, the injury of another and the serious wounding of three National Army soldiers and three civilians.
On Monday the 6th of November 1922 a prisoner at Limerick Jail was shot dead by a soldier of the Free State Army who was guarding the prison at the time. The prisoner, Michael Buckley, had been warned several time to stop making hand signals to another prisoner, after several warnings the guard shot Buckley dead.

22 April, 1923 : Free State troops surround Frank Aiken, Paidrag Quinn and Sean Quinn, the leaders of the Anti-Treaty forces in the Dundalk area, in a safe house in Castlebellingham. A firefight breaks out in which the two Quinns are wounded - Sean mortally - and subsequently captured. In the confusion, Aiken manages to slip away....

Between the IRA election of Frank Aiken and the Castlebellingham incident (ie on 21 April 1923) IRA Captain Martin Hogan , from Dromineer in County Tipperary , was killed in action in Poulacapple , Tipperary .

There are conflicting reports on where exactly Captain Martin Hogan was killed by Free Staters : some reports have it that he was killed in action in Poulacapple , Tipperary, whilst others state that he was killed on the Gracepark Road in Whitehall, Dublin

 Captain Michael Cull, who was shot dead by Free State forces during a raid on Ovens’ hardware and grocery store in the village of Ballyconnell County Cavan. on the 6th of January 1923.

There was however one more incident that brought the series of tragedies set off by the death of Michael Cull at Ballyconnell on January 7 1923 to a close. As the National Army troops traversed the Arigna hills they blew up the dugouts and mine tunnels where the guerrillas had been camped out. One such dugout was inhabited at the time by two IRA Volunteers, Patrick Tynan and James Cull, the brother of Michael. Both died in the explosion on February 27 1923. Their funerals were raided by a party of Free State troops in an armoured car, who lined up and searched all the male mourners

Ned Bofin himself, who had been nicknamed in the press, ‘the Irish De Wet’ (after the Boer guerrilla leader of 1899-1902) was captured on March 25th 1923.

January 26 1923: Three Anti-Treaty IRA prisoners executed in Birr. One is William Conroy, another is Patrick Cunningham (from Tullamore, Co. Offaly) and the third is Colm Kelly (Tullamore, Co. Offaly).
The execution of Offaly IRA Volunteers Joseph Byrne and Patrick Geraghty : Joseph Byrne from Cruith, Daingean, and Rochfordbridge native Patrick Geraghty have had an automatic pistol at Croghan on 10th November 1922. Byrne, 25, was an Adjutant in the 3rd Battalion (Tyrrellspass), Offaly No. 1 Brigade IRA. Geraghty, 33, was O/C of the same Battalion. Republicans were adamant that both men were unarmed when captured and that they faced trumped up charges. According to the 'Midland Tribune' newspaper Geraghty fired on Free State troops and a brisk exchange of rifle fire took place. The 'Offaly Independent' reported Free State troops surrounding a farmhouse where there was a fierce exchange of shots. Byrne apparently surrendered while Geraghty escaped and took cover in a field beside the house, where he blazed away at the troops with a 'Peter-the- Painter' automatic pistol.
 noble six shot on Benbulben mountain in September 1922.

The battle for Kilmallock took place between 25 July and 5 August 1922 in County Limerick. It was one of the largest engagements and a key turning point of the Irish Civil War. When the Free State army captured Limerick city in mid-July 1922, Republican forces retreated south towards Cork and made their next determined stand around Kilmallock. This area barred the way to the heartland of the Munster Republic.

In one of the largest and most intense battles of the Irish Civil War, Free State and Republican troops fought for possession of Kilmallock, Bruree, and Bruff, with the latter two towns repeatedly changing hands. The eventual Free State occupation of Kilmallock was a vital turning point in the war.

At least seven Free-State soldiers, six IRA Volunteers, one member of Cumann na mBan and one civilian were killed in the fighting there.

Molly Walsh,    Kilmacthomas

Molly Walsh, was the only daughter and eldest child of Maurice and Catherine Walsh (nee Callaghan). She was born in Kilmacthomas in 1894. She had five brothers, Richard, Michael, Patrick and John. Molly was an active member of the local branch of Cumann na mBan during the War of Independence.

Molly's brother, John was a member of Thomas Keating's column of the west Waterford Brigade and fought in the War of Independence and the subsequent Civil War on the anti-treaty side. He was arrested in March 1923 by the Free State army and taken to Kilkenny Jail. Molly told the story of how John and his comrades had decided not to co-operate or tell their names when there was a morning roll call in the prison. John was first in line and was beaten and shot for refusing to tell his name. He died on March 14th 1923 in the prison hospital. Molly travelled to Kilkenny to see him in a pony and trap when she got word of what happened but he was dead by the time she reached Kilkenny. He was brought home to Kilmacthomas to be waked and then buried in the Republican plot in Kilrossanty. Walsh's Place in Kilmacthomas is called after John Walsh. Molly always wore her "Black and Tan" Veterans medal proudly to all Easter Rising commemorations in subsequent years but spoke very little of those days in her life. Molly went on to marry Tom Power, The Hill, Kilmacthomas and had ten children.

 Harry Boland IRA  shot on July 31 1922: 

The shooting of Harry Boland: On an August weekend in 1922 residents of the seaside town of Skerries in north Co Dublin woke to see the Grand Hotel surrounded by armed  Free state  soldiers who refused to answer questions about what had happened.

 Irish Republicans Executed in the Civil War 1922/1923 by the Free State Government.

Republicans Executed in Civil War 1922/1923 Nov.17th; James Fisher, Peter Cassidy, Richard Twohig, John Gaffney, Nov 24th: Erskine Childers, Nov. 30th: Joseph Sponer, Patrick Farrelly, John Murphy, Dec 8th: Rory O’Connor, Liam Mellows, Joseph McKelvey, Dec 19: Stephen White, Joseph Johnston, Patrick Mangan, Patrick Nolan, Brian Moore, James O’Connor, Patrick Bagnell. Dec 29th: John Murphy, John Phelan, Jan 8th: Leo Dowling, Sylvester Heaney, Lawrence Sheeky, Anthony O’Reilly, Terence Brady: Jan 13: Thomas McKeown, John McNulty, Thomas Murray, Jan 15; Frederick Burke, Patrick Russell, Martin O’Shea, Patrick McNamara, James Lillis; Jan 20th: James Daly, James Hanlon, Cornelius McMahon, Patrick Hennessy, Thomas Hughes, Michael Walsh, Herbert Collins, Stephen Joyce, Martin Burke: Jan 22nd; James Melia, Thomas Lennon, Joseph Ferguson; Jan 26th; Patrick O’Reilly, Patrick Cunningham, William Conroy, Colum Kelly: Jan27th; Patrick Geraghty, Joseph Byrne: Feb 26th: Thomas Gibson: Mar 13th; James O’Rourke, William Healy, James Parle, Patrick Hogan, John Creane: Mar 14th Sean Larkin, Daniel Enright, Charles Daly; April 11th; James O’Malley, Francis Cunnane, Michael Monaghan, John Newell, John Maguire, Martin Moylan: April 25th; Richard Hathaway, James McEnery, Edward Greaney; April 26th, Patrick Mahoney, May 2nd Christopher Quinn.

 Joe Whitty aged 19 who died on hunger-strike on the 2nd September 1923, and was buried in Ballymore cemetery, Killinick, Co. Wexford.

Joseph Whitty came from Connolly Street in Wexford town. He was a volunteer in the IRA’s South Wexford Brigade and was arrested and imprisoned in late 1922, after the counter-revolution had begun. Prior to his imprisonment, he was among the many Republicans in County Wexford to suffer at the hands of Britain’s occupation forces and later at the hands of the Free State traitors.

In February 1923, members of Cumann na mBan had gone on hunger strike in protest against ongoing internment and successfully secured their release. By May the Civil War had officially ended, but thousands of republicans remained imprisoned, often in very poor conditions. This resulted in further hunger strikes during 1923. The Free State government had since passed a motion outlawing the release of prisoners on hunger strike, and this was to have dire consequences for Joseph Whitty and others. He died in Newbridge Internment Camp, on September 2nd, at the age of 19. He was the fifth Republican to die on hunger strike since 1917, and was laid to rest in Ballymore Cemetery, Killinick with full military honours.

John Stephens, Fermanagh Battalion, worked for the Great Northern Railway Company in Dublin. He was a native of Beleek, Co Fermanagh and was an IRA volunteer in the city. On the 2nd of September 1922 John Stephens, a member of the Anti Treaty forces, was removed by three armed men form a house he was lodging in at Gardiner Place Dublin. Several hours later John Stephens was found mortally wounded near Blackhorse Bridge. He was taken to Dr. Steeven’s Hospital where he died from his wounds later that day
September 6 1922: A Free State column is ambushed outside Kilkelly, Co Mayo by IRA  Anti-Treaty fighters. The Free State troops had five wounded . A skirmish takes place in Mitchelstown, Cork. One Anti-Treaty officer is killed and 12 of his men are captured.

September 19 1922: Sean Mac Eoin begins a Free State sweep of northern Co Sligo to clear it of Anti-Treaty guerrillas. The operation is largely successful. By the end of the operation, Free State forces are in control of all the towns in Co Sligo and the conflict there becomes a low-level guerrilla affair. Fifty-four people are killed in the county during the entire civil war, 22 Free State troops, 21 Republicans and 11 civilians. Of these, all but 8 have been killed by the end of September 1922. During MacEoin’s operation, a Republican column, including an armoured car, is cornered north of Sligo town. The car is put out of action and six Republicans flee up the slopes of Benbulben mountain.

After heavy fighting in the North Sligo area 6 Anti-Treaty Volunteers were found dead on Belbulben Mountain. For several days the Free State Army engaged the Anti-Treaty forces, it was during these engagement the Anti-Treaty forces used and were forced to abandon the Ballinalee Armoured Car. Accounts of how the Anti-Treaty Volunteers died differ, the Free State Army account state that the six were killed in gun battles while the Anti-Treaty side claim that at least three if not all were taken prisoner and executed.Brigadier Seamus Devins T.D.

He took an active part in the War of Independence, his house was burned to the ground by the Black and Tan and he also served time in Dartmoor Prison for his I.R.A. activities.

Captain Harry Benson. The body of Thomas Langan along with the body of Harry Benson were found near Ballinatrillick on the morning of the 2nd of October 1922.

Lieutenant Patrick (Paddy) Carroll. He was employed as a motor mechanic, his brother was a sergeant in the National Army.

Volunteer Joseph Banks. Patrick Joseph Banks died on 20 September 1922 near Mount Benbulben at Lislahelly, County Sligo from the effects of bullet wounds received from National Army forces. He was 18 years old at the time and had served with Fianna Eireann.

Volunteer Thomas Langan. The body of Thomas Langan along with the body of Harry Benson were found near Ballinatrillick on the morning of the 2nd of October 1922.

On the 6th of October 1922 three young men were arrested in Drumcondra County Dublin for putting up Anti Treaty Republican posters, they were taken to Wellington Barracks where they were interrogated and released. Details as to what happened after their release are sketchy but the three were found dead the next day at the Red Cow Clondalkin, the three were:

Edwin Hughes aged 17, 107 Clonliffe Road Drumcondra, County Dublin.
Brendan Holohan aged 17, 49 Patrick’s Road Drumcondra County Dublin.
Joseph Rogers aged 16, 2 St. Brigid’s Road Drumcondra, County Dublin. He was the son of well know Dublin Bookmaker Mr. Thomas Rodgers,

The semi automatic pistol that led to the execution of Erskine Childers,shot by the army of the Irish Free State, during the Irish Civil War for the crime of possessing a small automatic pistol, given to him in happier times by the Free State leader Michael Collins.

Gormanstown and the camp was handed over to the National Army. This was during the Irish Civil War which started on 28 June 1922. Gormanstown then became the Headquarters of the Transport Section of the National Army with the ceremonial opening of Gormanston on 8 October 1922.

An Internment camp was then built in Gormanston to house the vast numbers of Republican prisoners that were captured by the Irish Free State. The Internment camp was under the command of Commandant Morken. The first prisoners to be interned in the camp arrived on 9 September 1922 and there were about 1,000 Republican prisoners interned there, the internees included Oscar Traynor who was made OC by the prisoners, and famous names like Tom Barry who escaped on 28 September 1922, Sean T O'Kelly, Connie McNamara and author Frank O'Connor.

Although the Civil War ended on 24 May 1923, the Free State continued to hold over 12,000 Republican prisoners as hostages throughout Ireland to ensure hostilities did not break out again. A hunger strike was organised by Republican commandant Oscar Traynor in October 1923 to protest at conditions in the camp as well as continued internment. It was in December 1923 when the last prisoners left the camp

Sean O'Donoghue was born in Gurteeabowl, Mitchelstown, in 1898. Having completed his education he was employed in the warehouse of Messrs. Dwyer in Cork and lived with his aunt in Roches Buildings.He was involved in several engagements with the Black and Tans in Cork, and at the signing of the Treaty, he took the Republican side in the Civil War.

He was captured by Free State troops while leaving the Delaney Brothers House on Dublin Hill, and was executed shortly afterwards close by.

Sean is buried in the Republican Plot in St. Finnbarr’s Cemetery, Cork.

Paddy Dalton was killed at Donohill, Tipperary on October 26 1922:

Capt Jerry Kiely 4th Battalion 3rd Tipperary Brigade IRA was killed in the Glen of Aherlow on the 1st April 1923.

On April 1st the 3rd Tipperary Brigade lost a fine soldier, a brave officer and a noble character by the death in action of Captain Jerry Kiely of the 4th Battalion. Jerry Kiely was staying with Dan Breen in the house of Stephen MacDonough (father of the late Vice-Comdt., Paddy MacDonagh) at Lisvernane, in the Glen of Aherlow when a party -162- of Free State troops under Captain O'Dea from Galbally attacked the house. The men inside were taken by surprise but held their fire until the raiders burst in when they opened fire. The Free State commander was mortally wounded by the first shot fired from the kitcher while one of the soldiers was wounded by the second shot. On receiving the fatal wound Captain O'Dea rushed from the house through the front door - by which he had entered - and running round to the back sat down on a dung-hill where he expired. Meanwhile Sergeant English had attempted to open fire on Captain Kiely but his gun jammed and in leaping back into the cover of the porch he tripped and fell. It had been arranged between Dan Breen and Jerry Kiely that they should retreat through the back door, using their grenades to get clear of the enemy, but when Jerry Kiely saw the Free State sergeant trip and fall to the door he saw an opportunity of escaping through the front door and seized it. Springing over the sergeant's prostrate body lie rushed on to the road. Having already emptied his revolver he now attempted to use the Thompson gun which he carried. Unfortunately for himself, it jammed after the first shot and Jerry Kiely fell dead on the roadside, shot through the lung. Dan Breen meantime had got clear through the back door, making his escape into the woods with the help of a hand grenade

In 1922 and 1923 over 14,000 Irish republicans – men, women, boys and girls – were arrested in all parts of the country by the King of England’s Irish tools, without any charge, and were kept in the prisons and internment camps without trial, and under conditions that were unbelievable then and would be unbelievable now.
In the Autumn of 1923 the conditions grew worse and the prisoners in Mountjoy and Kilmainham were being systematically treated as convicts. To end this and to make the only protest in their power against injustice and to draw public attention to the cruelty and duplicity of the “Free State” Government, the prisoners went on hunger strike on October 14, 1923. Five days later the men and women in the other prisons followed their example, although the original intention was that only a selected comparatively small number should take the offensive in this drastic way and continue to the end, whether that end was death or victory.
Every mean device was resorted to by the “Free Staters” to break the hunger strike and in many of their tricks and schemes they were successful. Men were induced by lies, and by forged orders supposed to have come from superior officers, to come off the strike and take food. Then when they discovered they had been fooled, they were ashamed to go back again. Thousands broken in health by long imprisonment under the worst possible conditions were unable to hold out more than eight or ten days, and collapsed completely, in some cases falling into such bad health that they never recovered.

From THE CORK EXAMINER 29th October 1924...................... "Bodies Handed Over at Beggars Bush"

The Bodies of Messers. Erskine Childers, James O'Rourke, Patrick Farrelly, Joseph Spooner and John Murphy, who were executed in 1922, were handed over to to their relatives at 9 o'clock this morning at Beggars Bush Barracks.

Shortly before the appointed time five hearses proceeded into the barracks, followed by mourning coaches, in which were the relatives of the executed men. At 9.15 the gates were thrown open, and the funeral procession passed slowly out of the Barracks Square.

A terse command from the Commanding officer brought the troops to attention, and the guard presented arms. Those congregated outside uncovered heads, and the scene enacted was an imposing one.

The remains reposed in unpolished coffins of Irish Oak, encasing the coffins in which the deceased men had been originally interred.
The rough oaken coffins were sealed, and bore a simple inscription indicating the identity of the dead.

Ten members of the Cumann na mBan came to the salute as the remains left the barracks, The hearses were drawn up outside and the coffins were then shrouded in the tricolour flag, with the inscription "I. R" in black letters.

The cortage was set in motion at 9.30 en route for Hardwick Street Hall. where the remains will lie in state till 8 pm. tomorrow,when they will be removed to Whitefrier Street Church. At Mount Street Bridge the procession was joined by a number of men, drawn up in military formation. They performed a number evolutions, and fell in behind and in front of the cortage. In single file on each side of hearses the Cumann na mBan formed a guard of honour

December 6 1923: Scartaglen, Co Kerry. Free State Lt. Jeremiah Gaffney shot dead republican Thomas Brosnan in a revenge attack. Gaffney was executed for the shooting on 13 March 1924.

Thomas Brosnan was murdered by a Free State soldier from Dublin called Jeremiah Gaffney in a particularly callous act of the type that was played out in a number of places around the country during the death throes of the Civil War.

Jeremiah Gaffney was stationed in Castleisland at the time, where he was co-habiting with a nurse who was a distant relative of Thomas Brosnan's father. It appears the woman felt that Thomas Brosnan's father was speaking ill of her around the area and mentioned this fact to her lover.

Following a session of drink in Castleisland, Gaffeny and a lorry load of Free State soldiers went out to Scartaglin under the cover of darkness." On arrival at the Brosnan's home, Thomas Brosnan — an only son — was fired on.

It appears the first bullet botched the job and Gaffney went up to Brosnan and finished him off with another bullet.

Going on the run initially, Gaffney eventually gave himself up, was convicted in a civilian court, sentenced to death and hanged.

December 6 1922: National Army troops encounter 80 republicans at Kilcash, Co Tipperary occupying a hill-top position. A fire fight breaks out that lasts for three hours. Two Republicans are killed, four wounded and eleven captured. The remainder of their column gets away by burning the furze bushes to cover their retreat. Free State troops have three men wounded.