If you are having a problem finding your ancestor who may have fought in the 1916 Rising, why not get in touch with our genealogist.   For research on Dublin and  country areas ,  A fee will apply,

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 Anecdotes

The donor of this photo is anxious to find information on her grand uncle Arthur Murphy who is in this photo.    If you recognize the setting of the photo or Arthur Murphy please get in touch.   The photo was taken by Art Studio, North Earl Street - he is said to have lived in Tyrone Street Dublin. Our records show an Arthur Murphy in Lewes Prison 1916.

 The Origin and Symbolism of the Easter Lily

Easter Lilies were first designed by Cumann na mBan (The Republican women’s organisation) in 1925 to raise money for the dependants of Republican prisoners and to commemorate the men and women who fought in The Easter Rising 1916.

The Easter Lily is a symbol of unity, equality and freedom for Irish people all over the world. The Lily is a beautiful flower first seen in the springtime and hence its connection with Easter 1916 when the first buds of the modern Irish freedom struggle blossomed. Its colours –Green, White and Orange echo the national flag, the tri-colour, which symbolises the hope for Peace, Harmony and Unity between all sections of the community on the island of Ireland – Green at peace with the Orange in one nation, united and free.

Mary Grennan,


Seán Hegarty lived in Scotland for a while came back in 1916 to fight,He was part of the Kimmage garrison and was in the GPO and he was involved in hoisting the Irish flag on the GPO with a guy called Harry Walpole.(See Irish press 1933 27 sep (very big funeral)Lots off people at it. It went Westland row by Hogan place Pearse street Tara street by Custom house,lower Abby street and down onto O Connell St,it stopped outside the GPO for a few miniutes.His was living at 5 hogan place at the time,I have some letter sent to him when he was in prison 1922,Eamon de Valera and other were at the funeral.

He was arrested in on 4th Oct 1922,He was arrested in Phil Shanhan's pub 134 Foley st, This was also given as his address.His first place of detention was Mountjoy this was on the 4th/7th October.He was transfer to Tintown "A" 28/1/1923.He took part in the hunger strike in 1922/3.He died 1933 in Jervis Street Hospital form ill health caused by the hunger strike in 1922.


  

WHEN THE POPE BLESSED IRISH VOLUNTEERS:

At the request of the Executive of the Irish Volunteers, Count Plunkett went to Rome in March 1916 to inform Pope Benedict XV of the proposed Rising and the moral justification for it.  He returned with the Pope’s personal blessing; traditionally believed to be a just cause.

From an old scrap-book, M.J. Cleary.

 My grandfather, Frank Gaskin fought in the 1916 Rising. He joined the IRB in Liverpool in 1911 and when he returned to Dublin shortly after he became involved in Dublin and started drilling at 41 Parnell Square.  He was a member 4 Battalion, Dublin Brigade ; the first OC there was Cathal Brugha.  He took part in gun-running at Howth and Kilcoole and on Easter Monday 1916 he was involved at the Magazine Fort and went from there to Marrowbone Lane.  He went back to the residence of Jack Mills in Mount Brown and was cut off there until Friday of Easter Week.  When he heard about the surrender he went home but on the following Monday he was arrested and taken to Kilmainham and then Richmond Barracks. He was then interned in Wakefield Prison; one of 376 prisoner sent there on 6th May 1916.  He was released in July 1916.  John Waters.

Christopher Ring, my grandfather was a member of the Irish Volunteers, 2nd Batt. C Company Dublin Brigade. His brothers Joe, Leo and Liam were also involved. There were five Ring brothers involved in 'The Rising'.  Liam is Liam O'Rinn who translated the national anthem into Irish.   My Grandfather, Christopher was in the GPO and it is said of him that he attacked a machine gun nest in Clontarf during the week.  He was interned in Frongoch..       Gary Rafter 

My father, James Marks was just twenty-one years of age when he answered the call on Easter Monday 1916.   The members of the 5th Battalion, Fingal Brigade fought at the much documented 'Battle of Ashbourne' but my father was one of twenty men who were sent into Dublin City in answer to a call from Commdt. James Connelly for assistance.  Having walked from Knocksedan near Swords they arrived at the G.P.O. and one of my father's memories was that he was'knee deep in soverigns'.. He was one of the party ordered to make their way to the Mendicity Institute on the Quays and with their leader Dick Coleman from Swords they fought a fierce battle with Sean Hueston in command.   Here one of the Swords men was killed; one Peter Wilson who is buried in the grounds of Dr Steeven';s Hospital.   The remainder were all sentenced to death which was commuted to penal servitude (otherwise I would not be writing this).  As a child I listened to all the stories and one day in the G.P.O. with my mother I began to look in the waste-paper boxes for the sovereigns!.      Bernadette. Marks,. 

 My great grand uncle, Frank Hurley fought in the Irish War of Independence and was captured and put in prison in Wandsworth in London.He was  member of the 3rd Cork Brigade. He fought at Crossberry and was captured at his home in Laragh when the Military searched their home, and requested to search the bedroom where his dying father Dan Hurley was.  Because Dan was dying the only made a quick search; Tom Deasy and Pat Harte were hiding under the bed.! Frank was killed by the Black and Tans near Bandon in 1921.     Mavis Host


‘My Grandfather James Bird  was a cane weaver and when coming home from work he used to have a child’s pram; one of those deep bottom ones, and he would have a load of cane underneath and he would have guns hidden.  My Mum told us one day herself and my granny came home from town and found her brother marching around the square where they lived with a rifle he had taken from under the mattress.’


Sheila O’Reilly, Dublin.


James Bird is listed among those who were sent to Stafford Prison on May lst 1916.

 Copy of anti conscription certificates that belonged to Walter Farrelly who fought at 'The Battle of Ashbourne' 1916.  From Michael O'Rourke.

 My cousin nurse Linda Kearns was in the G.P.O., during 1916. She started a Red Cross Hospital at North Great George's Street to nurse the wounded during Easter Week.When the British told her only to treat them she reluctantly had to close it.  She was the nurse rushed to The O'Rahilly when she was shot dead off Moore Lane.  She was also a nurse in Hamman Hotel with Cathal Brugha and went to the Mater Hospital with him holding his femoral artery to try to stop the bleeding on 5th July when he was shot and she was the last person to speak to him on 7th July 1922.   Senator Linda Kearns Mac Whinney died in 1951. She was born in Sligo and a cousin of Thomas Goff  was shot on 1st February 1923 by the Freestate Soldiers  at Beltra, Co Sligo.    Martina O'Rourke-Kearns

North Longford Flying Column.
The North Longford Flying Column was one of the most famous of its kind in Ireland during the Irish war of Independence. They carried out many raids on R.IC. Barracks in the Longford and Cavan areas. One of their most famous actions was the ambush at Clonfin on 1st February 1921. Some of the men of the column are listed here.
Tom Brady, James Joseph Brady, Patrick Callaghan, Séamus Conway, Patrick Cooke, Frank Davis, Séan Duffey,Thomas Earley, Séamus Farrelly, Patrick Finnegan, Larry Garaghty, Michael Gormley, Michael F. Heslin (Adjutant and Intelligence Officer), Hugh Hourican, Jack Hughes, Michael Kenny, Patrick Lynch, John McDowell, Sean Mac Eoin (Vice O/C and Director of Operations), Frank Martin, John Moore, Michael Mulligan, Michael F. Reynolds, Séan Sexton, Jim Sheeran, Michael Treacy and Ned Tynan, James Mulligan, Bernard Garraghan, E H Moran and Bernard Masterson.

Joan Moore

Clonfin, Co Longford 

 The Clonfin Ambush was an ambush carried out by the Irish Republican Army on 1 February 1921, during the Irish War of Independence. It took place in the townland of Clonfin between Ballinalee and Granard in County Longford. Four members of the Auxiliary Division were killed and eight were wounded in the ambush.

 Patrick Maher (c.1889 – 7 June 1921) was a member of the Irish Republican Army executed in Mountjoy Prison. He was aged 32 and a native of Limerick

Maher was hanged along with Edmond Foley for his alleged involvement in the rescue of Seán Hogan at Knocklong Railway Station on 13 May 1919 in which two policemen died.
Trial and Execution

Unlike Foley, Maher had no direct involvement in the rescue. He merely worked at the station grading poultry and eggs and he was at a crossroads three miles away at the time of the ambush. Nonetheless he was convicted of involvement and sentenced to death.

In a final message to other members of the IRA, Foley and Maher wrote:

Fight on, struggle on, for the honour, glory and freedom of dear old Ireland. Our hearts go out to all our dear old friends. Our souls go to God at 7 o'clock in the morning and our bodies, when Ireland is free, shall go to Galbally. Our blood shall not be shed in vain for Ireland, and we have a strong presentiment, going to our God, that Ireland will soon be free and we gladly give our lives that a smile may brighten the face of 'Dear Dark Rosaleen'. Farewell! Farewell! Farewell!

 Our grandfather, John Franklin was a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and an Irish Volunteer who took his place with other patriots in Enniscorthy in 1916 to free his country.  He was interned in Frongoch, Wales as a POW.  His family will be erecting a memorial to him for his part in the Rising of 1916.

The Franklin family.




Patrick McGrath, my Grandfather had joined the I.R.B. before he left his native Kilkenny and when the Volunteers started he was one of the earliest members. He was in the rising in Dublin in 1916.   He was a member of D Company, Dublin Brigade. He fought mostly around O'Connell Street in Reis's Buildings, the Hibernian Bank and the G.P.O.  He died in 1940 leaving a legacy of  family stories about his activities including killing a spy in Mountjoy Square in 1921.   M. Dermody, Dublin.

 Margaret Skinnider came from Scotland to join the Easter Rising. A crack shot, she was garrisoned in the Royal College of Surgeons and sniped from that position. She was the only female wounded in the fighting, and continued to fight for Ireland's independence and women's rights for the rest of her life.

 My Grandfather Patrick Vincent Coogan served during the Easter Rising in A Company lst Batt. of the Volunteers Under Ned Daly and Denis O'Callaghan.  Records show that he was active during Easter Week at Church Street, North Brunswick St., and Blackhall Place.  He later received a military service pension and medal for his role as a participant in the Rising.    Declan Coogan

 My father, Arthur P.Agnew came to Dublin with the Liverpool Irish to prepare for the 1916 Rising and  they were joined by the Glasgow, Manchester and London Irish. 

They were billeted in an old mill on land in Kimmage belonging to Count Plunkett and became known as they Kimmage Garrison.  Following the Rising my father was interned in Frongoch in North Wales and on release returned to Ireland.  He eventually arrived in Belfast where he married my mother and where I was born.  We came to Swords in1932 where my father renewed his acquaintance with some 1916 comrades, particularly Jack Kelly who lived on the Rathbeale Road.    Arthur Agnew in Swords Voices Vol 1. Part 8.
My grandfather Christopher Doyle, also known as Kit was interned in Ballykindler.  He was a resident of Dublin and later worked for the corporation.  My grandmother used to tell me that he was a prisoner with Sean Lamass among others and that Grace Gifford was a pen pal of his.
Martin McDonnell,

  John Daly's Trial Record when he was arrested in Erkin's Shop Clambrassil Street Dundalk,then brought to his lodgins owned by McArdles in Linnenhall Street Dundalk on 2nd October 1920 in And sentenced 2 Years Hard Labour in Belfast Jail, I cannot find after Belfast Jail he was moved to Liverpool Jail, Dundalk, He was on Hunger strike  in one of the jails. John Daly in his Belfast prison record says he is single but John is Married since 1914.                

 AILBHE O MONACHAIN was born in Belfast in 1889. During the 1916 Rising he was active in the Galway area,  particularly Connemara, because of his knowledge of Irish. He was a member of the Galway Brigade, Irish Volunteers, Commanding Officer, Liam Mellows.  Ailbhe evaded capture after the surrender and from 1916 to 1922 he acted in various capacities for Irish Volunteers and IRA in Cork, Wexford and Dublin.  In later life he taught art for Dublin V.E.C., and is buried in St. Colmcille's Graveyard, Swords, Co Dublin. His brother Cathal was killed in Killorgan on Good Friday 1916 on his way to meet with Roger Casement. 

             

 I would like my grandfather to be included in your Roll of Honour. He was Patrick Carroll who was active during the 1916 Rising at Harcourt St. Station, GPO, O'Connell Street and Moore Street, Dublin.   He  was with the Irish Citizens Army the week of 23 to 29th April 1916. He was interned for one week after the surrender but was then released because of her youth. He was with the IRA from June 1921 and during the Civil War he was imprisoned from April to October 1923.  Shane Brady

 




I am Tom Byrne and Lucy Smith’s granddaughter.   They were both in the G.P.O. in 1916 and family lore says that Con Colbert sent a message to my grandmother through a priest the night before he was executed.   He was a rival for her affections with Tom Byrne (Boer Tom).


Meave O’Leary




Abraham Weeks was involved in the 1916 Rising; also called John Neale.. He was a Londoner with a Cockney accent who was stationed in the Hotel Metropole garrison under the command of Lieutenant Oscar Trayner and Charles Saurin.  It was said he acted as a lookout sitting on the parapet on the top floor where he could scan O’Connell Street with a pair of field glasses.   Also said to have taken pot shots at Nelson’s nose on the pillar


Darren

“As we marched on up the pier I noticed another Fianna boy, Paul Marshal, standing high on the wall near the lighthouse at the end of the pier. He was making a rapid series of signals out to sea with a signal flag.” – Joseph Lawless, Fingal Brigade.

 The first act committed in connection with the rebellion took place on Easter Sunday 23rdApril when a party of five armed men went to De Selby Quarry, near Brittas, help up the caretaker and took a large quantity of gelignite (250 cartridges) in a motor car to Dublin. Next day Rogerstown Railway Bridge near Donabate, on the Northern, was blown up. On 26th April the police in the barracks at Swords and Donabate were over-powered and surrendered.   At Donabate the police returned the fire and one constable was wounded. On 27th April the police barracks at Garristown The first act committed in connection with the rebellion took place on Easter Su 23rd April when a part of five armed men went to the De Selby Quarry, near Brittas, held up the caretaker and took a large quantity of gelignite (250 cartridges) in a motor car was raided at 2 pm but the police had previously removed their arms and ammunition. The rebels concerned in these attacks with others, crossed into County Meath and captured Ashbourne Police Barracks, in the defence of which a number of police were killed.  In the meantime bodies of rebels both from the northern and southern portions of the county went into the city and joined the rebels there.  After the rebellion the Sinn Fein movement attracted many new adherents, including some of the younger R.C.Clergy.  Recruiting is bad. The harvest was on he whole good, and no shortage in the home food supply is anticipated, except perhaps as regards potatoes in the months of May and June

 Seán Hegarty lived in scotland for a while came back in 1916 to fight,He was part of the kimmage garrison and was in the GPO and he was involved in hoisting the Irish flag on the GPO with a guy called Harry walpole.(See Irish press 1933 27 sep (very big funeral)Lots off people at it. It went westland row by hogan place,pearse street,tara street by custom house,lower abby street and down onto o connell st,it stopped outside the GPO for a few miniutes.His was living at 5 hogan place at the time,I have some letter sent to him when he was in prison 1922,Eamon de Valera and other were at the funeral.


He was arrested in on 4th Oct 1922,He was arrested in Phil Shanhan's pub 134 foley st, This was also given as his address.His first place of detention was Mountjoy this was on the 4th/7th October.He was transfer to Tintown "A" 28/1/1923.He took part in the hunger strike in 1922/3.He died 1933 in Jervis Street hospital form ill health caused by the hunger strike in 1922.


Dillons Cross Ambush On Saturday, 11th., December, 1920 a six-man IRA squad from the 1st. Battalion, consisting of Captain Sean O'Donoghue and Volunteers James O'Mahoney, Michael Baylor, Augustine O'Leary, Sean Healy and Michael Kenny, ambushed a convoy from K Company of the Auxiliary Division at Dillon’s Cross, not far from Victoria Barracks in Cork City. One Auxiliary died,and twelve were wounded. The IRA squad suffered no casualties.

 My Wife's great uncle Christopher Doyle was from Dolphins barn. He was in the Republican Police. I believe this was Collins' "Hit Squad" and he carried out hits on the black and Tans. They came to his house one day looking for him. He was not there at the time, but they took his younger brother out side and shot him dead!

Christopher later joined the Garda and the medals we have belong to him.                                                                                                               

 DISTURBANCES IN WESTPORT CO MAYO:     RIC Report;  For many years Charles Hughes was leader of all disturbances in Westport. On March 17th 1916 he spoke at public meetings in support of Irish Volunteers at which The O'Rahilly and Darrel Figgis spoke.  Hughes advised all to arm themselves and not to  be skulking behind the army or navy of any foreign country.  He was one of the principal and most active leaders of the Sinn Fein movement in Westport.  Assisted William Mellows shortly before the rebellion to form Irish Volunteers branches at Westport, Aughagower and Cushlough.

Harry Hughes:  Charles Hughes, Lankill to Westport, Charles Hughes

 My maternal grandfather Peter Moran fought at the Battle of Ashbourne 1916.He was from Forest Little, Cloughran, Swords and a member of the Irish Volunteers, Fingal 5th  Batt.St. Margaret's Company. He was active in Finglas, Kileek,and RIC Barracks at Garristown, Swords, Donabate and Ashbourne. He was interned at Frongoch, Wales in 1916 after the 'Battle of Ashborne'.  In 1920 he was arrested and and interned until 1921. He took no part in the Civil War.  Peter Lee 

 17 November 1922 - The Irish Free State begins the executions of seventy-seven Anti-Treaty Republican prisoners.

In the first use of the powers enacted under the Public Safety Act, five Anti-Treaty IRA fighters who had been captured with arms in Co Wicklow were shot by firing squad in Dublin. On 19 November, three more Anti-Treaty IRA men were executed, also in Dublin.

. Statue in front of the courthouse in Cavan Town. It reads: In commemoration of these members of the Irish Republican Army who gave their lives in defence of the Irish Republic. Capt. Thomas Sheridan, Drumcrow, West Cavan Brigade, died of wounds received in action 29th May 1920 Staff Capt. Joseph McMahon, Lecarrowmore,Kilmaley,Ennis Co. Clare, killed military manoeuvres at Cavan, 19th August 1920 Vol. Stan McEntyre, Laggan, killed military manoeuvres Tominkroad (?), 2ndJune 1921 Staff Capt. Michael E. Baxter, Kildoach Co Cavan. Killed in action, Sefton Hill, Leitrim, 11th March 1921 Vol. Stan McCartney, Belfast. Killed in Action Lappan Mountain, 8th May 1921 Staff Capt. Edward P. Boylan, Corratober, Cavan. Cavan Brigade, died of wounds received in action, 26th July 1922. Capt. Andy O'Sullivan, Denbawn, Cavan, Attached to Cork Brigade. Died on hungerstrike, 22nd Nov, 1923 Commandant Thomas Fitzpatrick, Cavan Brigade. Died from effects of imprisonment and hunger-strikes, 24th Feb. 1924

RI CHARD (DICK) McKEE from Finglas, fought at Jacob's Factory with the Irish Volunteers during the 1916 Rising. He was a Brigade Officer Commanding, Dublin Brigade of Irish Volunteers, when he was captured by British Forces in November 1922.  He was short dead by by British forces in Dublin Castle on 22 Nov. 1920, along with  Peadar Clancy and Conor Clune . 

18 June 1921 - Coolbawn Ambush: 36 IRA Volunteers in Kilkenny tried to ambush a British Army convoy, at Coolbawn, between Castlecomer and Athy.

Ireland lost two of its finest men that day when Sean Hartley, Glenmore, and Nicholas Mullins, Thomastown, were killed while attempting to ambush a force of Black and Tans who were escorting explosives to the nearby mines.

The ambush had been set on the orders of Michael Collins who directed that pressure needed to be alleviated on IRA forces operating in Tipperary and Cork. These areas were bearing the brunt of the struggle and now north Kilkenny could distract British forces and lighten their comrade’s load.

However, as in many times before and since, informers’ work was well done and the IRA ambushers now became the ambushed. The Black and Tans were tipped off by a local woman landowner, Florrie Draper, and their commanding officer attempted to encircle the IRA column and wipe them out. That they failed to do so says a lot about the bravery and ingenuity of the IRA and the local Republicans around Castlecomer and beyond.


Pat Dwyer

June 23 1919: In January 1919 the first shots of the War of Independence were fired at Soloheadbeg, Co Tipperary. By June, a massive force, made up of police and military personnel, were carrying out extensive and regular raids throughout the county.

Scramouge Ambush, Co Roscommon Among the volunteers who took part were Martin Fallon, 'Cushy' Hughes, Frank Simons, Luke Duffy, Peter Casey, Peter Collins and Tom Compton.

 Captain Tadhg Kennifick, Cork No. 1 Brigade IRA, was killed by the Free State Army on the 8th September 1922, while on the way to his mothers' funeral. He received a horrific death, under the orders of General Dalton, who had him dragged behind the back of a Free State truck, while his hands were tied together. He was then beaten with rifle butts in the face and on his body, losing several teeth and incurring vicious wounds and was eventually shot twice in the head and his body dumped behind a wall just outside Coachford Village, Co. Cork

November 17: Ten men from the 5th Battalion, Cork No. 3 Brigade, IRA (including Mossie Donegan, Sean Cotter, Ralph Keyes, Pat Sullivan and Michael O'Callaghan) sneak on-board a British Navy vessel anchored at Bantry, hold-up the crew and make away with ten rifles, ten revolvers and ammunition.

 MOURNFUL LINES ON THE MILITARY OUTRAGE IN DUBLIN.

 

You true born sons of Erin’s Isle, come listen to my song,

My tale is one of sorrow, but I won’t detain you long,

Concerning the murderous outrage that took place in Dublin town,

When a cowardly Regiment was let loose to shoot our people down,

 

On the 26th day of July, the truth I’ll tell to you,

The Irish Volunteers all swore their enemies to subdue,

They marched straight out to Howth and soon the people were alarmed,

When they heard the glorious news our “Irish Volunteers are Armed.”

 

The crowds all kept cheering on as our brave defenders passed,

But their cheers were stopped by an outrage which for some time did last,

Our gallant men, the Volunteers were met in front and rere,

By the King’s Own Scottish cowards, who are doomed from everywhere.

 

God save our gallant Captain Judge, the hero of the band,

Who nearly gave his previous life for the just cause of his land,

In spite of terrible injuries and weak from loss of blood,

He fondly hugged his rifle grand, the prize of his brotherhood.

 

Ballad of Howth gun-running and its sequel in Bachelor’s Walk,

Cumann Na mBan

On 23 April 1916, when the Military Council of the Irish Republican Brotherhood finalised arrangements for the Easter Rising, it integrated Cumann na mBan, along with the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army, into the ‘Army of the Irish Republic’. Patrick Pearse was appointed overall Commandant-General and James Connolly as Commandant-General of the Dublin Division.

On the day of the Rising, 40 Cumann na mBan members, including Winifred Carney, who arrived armed with both a Webley revolver and a typewriter, entered the General Post Office on O’Connell Street in Dublin with their male counterparts. By nightfall, women insurgents were established in all of the major rebel strongholds throughout the city – bar one. Éamon de Valera steadfastly refused, in defiance of the orders of Pearse and Connolly, to allow women fighters into the Boland’s Mill garrison.

The women in the rebel garrisons fought alongside the men and were not confined, as is commonly believed, to nursing duties or other tasks traditionally assigned to women such as making tea and sandwiches for the fighting men. Members also gathered intelligence on scouting expeditions, carried despatches and transferred arms from dumps across the city to insurgent strongholds.

Constance Markiewicz for example – armed with a pistol – during the opening phase of the hostilities shot a policeman in the head near St Stephen’s Green. Later, Markiewicz along with other female fighters – after a day of carrying out sniper attacks on British troops in the city centre – demanded that they be allowed to bomb the Shelbourne Hotel. Helena Moloney was among the soldiers who attacked Dublin Castle, and she and other women also fought as snipers. During the Rising, British soldiers became confused and hostile when they realized there were women fighting in the battles.

A number of Cumann na mBan members died in the Rising, including volunteer Margaretta Keogh who was shot dead outside the South Dublin Union.

At the Four Courts they helped to organise the evacuation of buildings at the time of surrender and to destroy incriminating papers. This was exceptional; more typical was the General Post Office (GPO), where Pearse insisted that most of them leave at noon on Friday, 28 April. The building was then coming under sustained shell and machine-gun fire, and heavy casualties were anticipated. The following day the leaders at the GPO decided to negotiate surrender. Pearse asked Cumann na mBan member Elizabeth O’Farrell (a mid-wife at the National Maternity Hospital) to act as a go-between. Under British military supervision she brought Pearse’s surrender order to the rebel units still fighting in Dublin. Over 70 women, including many of the leading figures in Cumann na mBan, were arrested after the insurrection, and many of the women who had been captured fighting were imprisoned in Kilmainham; all but 12 had been released by 8 May 1916. 

A.J. Hurley

 My mother Catherine Tighe Sheehy, from Belmullet, Co Mayo was a RN in the former Richmond Hospital on Brunswick Street in Dublin from 1912-1921.  She was an eyewitness to the Easter Week Uprising since she also nursed many of the wounded Patriots and Civilians who were injured at the time.  She mentioned how the hospital corridors were crowed with the wounded. She emigrated to Chicago in 1921 when the Treaty was signed with Britain.  She met my father, Chicago Police Officer James Sheehy and they were  married in 1926 and later raised seven children in Chicago of which I am the youngest and now the only survivor.  I am now a retired priest in Venice, Florida,USA.   My father was from Abbeyfeale, Co. Limerick and my mother was a nurse in Columbus Catholic Hosital in Chicago when she met him.  I thank God for my wonderful Irish Catholic parents who gave me the blessing of my Faith and my love of my Irish Heritage.  Rev Vincent Sheehy, Florida, USA.

Leitrim Cavan 

 Ned Bofin’s IRA column in these months raided with impunity from their lair in the Arigna mountains, repeatedly humiliating Free State garrisons in the county towns.

Beginning in late 1922 the anti-Treaty column based in Arigna began systematic dismantling of the Free State security apparatus in the region. In November 1922 Ballinamore Civic Guard (police) station was held up and the Guards’ uniforms taken.

Emboldened by their easy victory over the unarmed Guards, on December 8, the anti-Treatyites attacked and overpowered the Free State military garrison at Carrickonshannon, killing one soldier (a civilian was also killed in the exchange of fire) and seizing the arms and motor transport of the soldiers.

There were further attacks on barracks at Dowra and Manorhamilton before Bofins’ men had their greatest coup, at Ballinamore on January 28 1923. There, the barracks was taken after a short fire fight and then blown up. The train station was also destroyed and as well as losing their arms and tenders, the 35 Free State soldiers were rounded up and taken back the Arigna mountains as prisoners.

 My Grandfather, Richard Humphreys fought in the G.P.O. He became a member of the Irish Volunteers (founded by his uncle The O'Rahilly) in 1913. He was at the Howth Gun-running. He was aged 18 at the time.  When he heard the Rising was on in 1916 he went to the GPO. on Monday night to join The O'Rahillly. He drove the family car on various excursions for supplies, returning to the GPO. He went home after a while as his mother was worried about him but returned on Wednesday and it was then too dangerous to leave the GPO. By Friday the GPO was in flames and he stayed until the end with the main garrison in the GPO. They surrendered on Saturday afternoon 29th April. The story goes that he got as far as Trinity College before capture. He was jailed in Kilmainham and was among those deported to Wakefield Military Detention Prison in Yorkshire. In the War of Independence he was in B Company 3rd Batt. Dublin Brigade IRA.He survived attacks on the family home, hunger strike and attacks by the Black and Tans.     Dr. Mark Humphreys, Dublin 

3 civilians were killed on Bachelor's Walk same day as Howth Gun Running  26th June 1914.

MOURNFUL LINES ON THE MILITARY OUTRAGE IN DUBLIN. You true born sons of Erin’s Isle, come listen to my song, My tale is one of sorrow, but I won’t detain you long, Concerning the murderous outrage that took place in Dublin town, When a cowardly Regiment was let loose to shoot our people down, On the 26th day of July, the truth I’ll tell to you, The Irish Volunteers all swore their enemies to subdue, They marched straight out to Howth and soon the people were alarmed, When they heard the glorious news our “Irish Volunteers are Armed.” The crowds all kept cheering on as our brave defenders passed, But their cheers were stopped by an outrage which for some time did last, Our gallant men, the Volunteers were met in front and rere, By the King’s Own Scottish cowards, who are doomed from everywhere. God save our gallant Captain Judge, the hero of the band, Who nearly gave his previous life for the just cause of his land, In spite of terrible injuries and weak from loss of blood, He fondly hugged his rifle grand, the prize of his brotherhood.     Ballad of Howth gun-running and its sequel in Bachelor’s Walk, Handbook of Dublin Civil Week 1920.

 Martin Walton, later founder of the famous Walton’s music school, was just 15 when he joined the rebellion. He described the scene as he arrived at Jacob’s on Tuesday morning. “When I arrived then at Jacob’s the place was surrounded by a howling mob roaring at the Volunteers inside, ‘Come out to France and fight, you lot of so-and-so slackers’. And then I started shouting up to the balustrade, ‘Let me in, let me in’. And then I remember the first blood I ever saw shed. There was a big, very, very big tall woman with something very heavy in her hand and she came across and lifted up her hand to make a bang at me. One of the Volunteers upstairs saw this and fired and I just remember seeing her face and head disappear as she went down like a sack. That was my baptism of fire, and I remember my knees nearly going out from under me

James Connolly  -   James Connolly was propped up in a chair and blindfolded before his execution on 12 May 1916. Father Aloysius, the priest attending the execution said to Connolly: ‘Will you forgive these men who are about to shoot you?’ Connolly replied: ‘I respect all brave men who do their duty,       P.Grant


1922 Sept 20 – Seán Mac Eoin begins a Free State sweep of northern Co Sligo to clear it of Anti-Treaty guerrillas. The operation is largely successful. By the end of the operation, Free State forces are in control of all the towns in Co Sligo and the conflict there becomes a low-level guerrilla affair. Fifty-four people are killed in the county during the entire civil war, 22 Free State troops, 21 Republicans and 11 civilians. Of these, all but 8 have been killed by the end of September 1922. During MacEoin's operation, a Republican column, including an armoured car, is cornered north of Sligo town. The car is put out of action and six Republicans flee up the slopes of Benbulben mountain. All six are killed by the pursuing Free State troops, four of them, it is alleged, are killed after surrendering. Among those killed are Cpt. Harry Benson, and Brian MacNeill, (son of Eoin MacNeill, founder of the Irish Volunteers), who is shot at close range in the forehead. One National Army sergeant is killed in the operation and 30 Irregulars are taken prisoner.                      Mary McCort

in 1923 during the Irish Civil War one day at approximately 2:30am in the morning, members of the Irish Free State Army's Dublin Guard escorted 9 Anti Treaty IRA (Irish Republican Army) prisoners out of Tralee army barracks in county Kerry which they were being imprisoned in. 
The 9 IRA prisoners were taken to a crossroads outside Tralee . The 9 IRA prisoners were tied to the mine it exploded and 8 prisoners were killed. 1 lived it was a brutal murder,

D.G

 The Scramogue Ambush, Co Roscommon


The flying columns of the North and South Roscommon Irish Republican Army Brigades under Patrick Madden (O/C South Roscommon Brigade) ambushed a nine-man British Army (Ninth Lancers regiment) and Royal Ulster Constabulary (RIC) patrol in a Crossley tender at Scramogue, on March 23, 1921, (on the Strokestown-Longford road) which resulted in the death of six members of the British forces.

Two British army officers (Alfred Peek and Lt Tennant), an RASC driver and one RIC man (Con Edward Leslie) were killed in action. Peek, who commanded the 9th Lancers at Strokestown, County Roscommon had threatened to burn every house within five miles if one of his men were killed. In addition, after the ambush, two men in civilian clothes approached IRA commander Madden and told him that they were prisoners on the tender. Under questioning, it turned out that they were RIC men (Black and Tans) under arrest – both (Con Buchanan and Con Evans) were killed.

There were 39 men in the ambush party armed with 17 rifles, 2 or 3 revolvers and 20 shotguns. Among the IRA who took part were ‘Cushy’ Hughes, Frank Simons and Luke Duffy, Seán Leavy (O/C 3rd Battalion North Roscommon Brigade), Martin Fallon (O/C Flying Column North Roscommon Brigade).

Two men from the North Roscommon brigade (Pat Mullolly and Brian Nagle) who had taken part in the ambush were arrested after the ambush and the brother of one (Michael Mullolly) was shot dead in his home by RIC men.

Five RIC men on bicycles were attacked at Rathmacross, Co. Roscommon (between Ballaghdereen and Frenchpark) resulting in the deaths of two policemen and one IRA man (Tom McDonagh). The IRA were led by Jim Hunt 

The Battle of Mount St Bridge 

 Although there was an alternative crossing of the canal available just a street away at Baggot Street, which would have flanked the Volunteers’ position, General Lowe ordered that the bridge at Mount street be taken “at all costs”. For the rest of the day, at the sound of whistles every twenty minutes, waves of hapless troops, led by officers with drawn swords, charged up the Road, only to be shot down. By the evening, the road was carpeted with dead and wounded British troops, many moaning in pain and trying feebly to drink from their water bottles.

Mick Malone, who died fighting at number 25 Northumberland Road.

The survivors crawled into the gutters and doorways at either side of the road for some cover, while others huddled under a low wall at the canal. For the Volunteers, despite the hopeless odds, it was exhilarating. Inside Clanwilliam House, two Volunteers, Patrick Doyle and Tom Walsh, shouted over the noise of battle, “Isn’t this a great day for Ireland?” “Isn’t it that?”, “Did I ever think I’d see a fight like this? Shouldn’t we all be grateful to the good God that he has allowed us to take part in a fight like this?”. No sooner were the words out of Doyle’s mouth when he was hit in the head and killed.Eventually, on the Thursday, the position was stormed when the British brought up machine guns and explosives. Four Volunteers, Malone among them were killed and another captured. The rest slipped away.

The fighting at Mount Street had inflicted 240 casualties -or  up to two thirds of British losses in Easter week. Not all of the Sherwood Foresters casualties were fatalities however. The Irish Times published the military’s official list of casualties on May 11, which listed 4 officers and 24 other ranks of the Sherwood Foresters killed, along with a much larger number, over 200, badly wounded 

 

  Carrowkennedy Ambush, Co Mayo–1921 : Michael Kilroy and the IRA’s West Mayo Flying Column ambushed a convoy of RIC and Black and Tans. Seven policemen were killed and six were wounded, two of them fatally. The surviving seventeen police surrendered and the IRA seized a large quantity of arms. Many of the local people went into hiding to avoid the retribution of the Black and Tans. The Irish fighters went on the run throughout the region sheltering in safe houses

 British troops re-take Pettigo. They bombarded the village with artillery and then stormed it. Seven IRA volunteers were killed, six were wounded and four were captured. Another 50 IRA volunteers were later taken prisoner. The remainder made it back across the border. One British soldier died in the engagement 

 Rogerstown Railway Bridge near Donabate, on the Northern, was blown up. On 26th April the police in the barracks at Swords and Donabate were over-powered and surrendered.   At Donabate the police returned the fire and one constable was wounded. On 27thApril the police barracks at Garristown The first act committed in connection with the rebellion took place on Easter Sun 23rd April when a part of five armed men went to the De Selby Quarry, near Brittas, held up the caretaker and took a large quantity of gelignite (250 cartridges) in a motor car was raided at 2 pm but the police had previously removed their arms and ammunition. The rebels concerned in these attacks with others, crossed into County Meath and captured Ashbourne Police Barracks, in the defence of which a number of police were killed.  In the meantime bodies of rebels both from the northern and southern portions of the county went into the city and joined the rebels there.  After the rebellion the Sinn Fein movement attracted many new adherents, including some of the younger R.C.Clergy.  Recruiting is bad. The harvest was on he whole good, and no shortage in the home food supply is anticipated, except perhaps as regards potatoes in the months of May and June.    B, Marks

 My grandfather Patrick Kavanagh of Rathballylong, Blessington, Co Wicklow was an Irish Volunteer in 1916.  He was in D Company, and fought in Jacob's Factory.  After the Rising he was sent to Knutsford and then to  Frongoch in Wales. He lived in Dublin at the time of the Rising and after his release on July 17th.  He later returned to Rathballylong and continued his services during the War of Independence.He received three medals and became a hero around West Wicklow and Kildare.  Photo includes my grandfather, his wife Mary and my late father Thomas Kavanagh.  Olivia Kelly

 On 19 April 1921 four men of The Irish Republican Army were staying in a house near Loughglin wood, when they learned that the 'Black & Tans' were combing they wood area.  The four men attempted to escape;  two were wounded Joe Satchwell and Thomas (Toby) Scally.  Following a drum head court-marshall the others, John Bergin and Stephen McDermott were shot on the spot.

A monument to all those from the locality who gave their lives during the War of Independence is across from the church known as 'Mother Eireann'.

October 6 1920: Tubbercurry Co Sligo
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on the night of 30th September 1920. An IRA Flying Column unit successfully ambushed a police and military patrol on the outskirts of Tubbercurry. The aim of the mission was to kill, wound or capture a recently-appointed Police Inspector, thereby sending out a loud message of local defiance. After a gun battle, the Police Inspector was fatally wounded, and the IRA retreated without suffering any losses. The British reprisal attack was swift and brutal. A company of “Black and Tans” entered the once-sleepy town of Tubbercurry and proceeded to burn the shops and homes of suspected IRA sympathizers. As the town was composed of adjoining terraced streets, soon the whole town centre was ablaze

 Malahide man fought in 1916 Rising.  James O'Connell from Yellow Walls, Malahide became a member of Irish Volunteers, 4 Battalion, C Company, Dublin Brigade and later became a member of 5 Battalion (Fingal Brigade) Swords Company.During the Easter Rising he was active in Roe's Distillery, Mount Brown and Jameson's Distillery, Marrowbone Lane, Dublin.Having participated in the activity there he was interned at Frongoch, North Wales until August 1916.  During the War of Independence records show that he took part in a number of IRA operations like the burning of Donabate and Rush RIC Barracks and various raids for arms in the north County Dublin area..

Kevin Gerard Barry (20 January 1902 – 1 November 1920) was the first Irish republican to be executed by the British since the leaders of the Easter Rising. Barry was sentenced to death for his part in an Irish Volunteers operation which resulted in the deaths of three British soldiers

November 10 1922:

COUNTY WESTMEATH.REPUBLICAN LEADER ARRESTED.

It was announced in Mullingar yesterday that James Maguire, commandant and leader of the Republicans in Westmeath, was captured on Wednesday night, with four other Republicans, by national troops. Maguire was in command of the Republicans when they occupied Mullingar Royal Irish Constabulary barracks, the County Council buildings, and the Courthouse.

 The third battalion of The West Waterford IRA brigade, or Déise Brigade as it is also known, was the Ardmore-Old Parish battalion its main personal were: Jim Mansfield, O.C, Willie Doyle, Vice-O.C., Paddy Cashen, Adjutant, Declan Slattery, Q.M., Dick Mooney, Engineer, Jerry Fitzgerald, Dispatch Rider, Tom Mooney, Transport and Declan Troy, Training. The Staff Engineer Mick Mansfield  of Crú Baile, An tSean Phobail took part in many operations across the county including the Burgery ambush.In the year 1918, Declan Slattery of Scrahan, Old Parish was appointed Battalion Quartermaster. During the period 1918- 1919
November 4 1922: A battle  between National Army and Republican troops who attack military posts in two villages, Enniskean and Ballineen in West Cork. Five Free State soldiers are injured, two fatally. Republican losses are at least two dead; a section commander Tadhg O’Leary and a volunteer, both IRA West Cork Brigade”


December 8 1920:The Flying Column of the Cork No. 3 brigade, under Sean Lehane (Schull), attempts to ambush a lorry containing soldiers from the Essex regiment at Gaggin, Co. Cork but the lorry escapes from the ambush site and doubles back. They capture and kill one IRA man (Michael McLeane, Lowertown, near Schull) but withdraw when they see the size of the column.I.R.A. Lieutenant Michael McClean of Lowertown Schull was captured and killed by soldiers of the Essex Regiment

On the night of Sunday the 26th of December 1920 a dance was held at Cahirguillamore House Limerick, the owner of the house Viscount O’Grady was away at the time. The dance was raided by a joint force of Military and Police including Black and Tans. It was believed the dance was held to raise funds for the local I.R.A. ‘Flying Column’ by Bruff Battalion I.R.A., sentries was posted by the I.R.A. but a large party of Military surprised the sentries. During the exchange of fire and subsequent interrogation of those in the house five I.R.A. Volunteers died. R O’Brien John Quinlan Harry Wade Daniel Sheahan

Martin Conway. It was reported that Conway, severely wounded, crawled four miles. Using a bloodhound to track him police caught up with him, he immediately fired on the Bloodhound killing him instantly. Conway was killed in the following exchange of fire. Conway, a prominent Sinn Fein Member was on the run and was acting as sentry at the dance.

1922 - A Free State expeditionary force is sent to County Wexford to re-take the towns there. It comprises 230 men under Colonel Commandant Keogh, with one field gun and four armoured vehicles.                                                                      13  Two RIC men, Sergeant Peter Wallace and Constable Michael Enright, were shot in a shoot-out with Dan Breen and Sean Treacy, as the latter freed fellow IRA memberSean Hogan from the custody of the RIC, on a train in Knocklong, Co Limerick. Enright was killed and Wallace died of his wounds the next day

 Two Anti-Treaty fighters are killed in a skirmish outside a pub in Urlingford. Co Killkenny. 

A Free State CID Motor Driver is fatally wounded in an attack at Dean's Grange, Dublin.

 A Free State soldier is shot dead and a barracks burned at Shortcourse, Waterford

 A Free State convoy of 100 troops is ambushed between Tralee and Killorglin, County Kerry. One officer is killed. The National Army troops are caught in several more ambushes along their line of retreat, taking more casualties.

 Anti-Treaty fighters ambush Free State troops at Glasson, near Athlone. National Army officer Lieutenant McCormack is killed and several more soldiers are wounded.

 Fianna Éireann members Seán Cole and Alf Colley and Anti-Treaty IRA member Bernard Daly, are abducted and killed in Dublin by the Criminal Investigation Department CID, police unit based in Oriel House allegedly in revenge for Michael Collins killing, although possibly in retaliation for the death of a CID man the previous day.

 Two National Army soldiers are killed in an ambush on the road between Nenagh and Limerick

 Anti-Treaty IRA unit under Liam Pilkington takes Dromhaire barracks, County Sligo. Free State garrison there surrenders.

 A civilian is shot dead by Free State troops in a raid on a shop at Capel Street, Dublin.

 A National Army convoy is ambushed near Aughatubrid, County Kerry. Two Free State soldiers are killed and two wounded. One Republican is wounded and captured.

 A large party of Republican fighters attack Carrickmacross barracks, Monaghan. The attack is unsuccessful but one Free State soldier is killed

1920 – IRA shot and killed a Dublin Metropolitan Police sergeant in Clonakilty, County Cork.


1923 – Free State troops take a republican prisoner, Daniel Murphy, to Knocknagoshel, Co Kerry, where 5 National Army troops had been killed on 6 March and shoot him dead.

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 A Free State soldier is assassinated at Barrack Street, Cork, while visiting his family.

 There are gun attack on Free State posts in Waterford City. One civilian, Kate Walsh is killed. Separately two bodies of anti-Treaty fighters, buried clandestinely after a previous action are dug up in Waterford.

 IRA fighters ambush National Army troops in Glenacone County Limerick, but are worsted in the ensuing action, One IRA officer, D Finich of Cork 2 Brigade is killed and 12 prisoners are taken. Two National Army soldiers are wounded

 A Free State column is ambushed outside Kilkelly, County Mayo by Anti-Treaty fighters. The Free State troops have five wounded and claim to have killed seven irregulars.

 A skirmish takes place in Mitchelstown, Cork. One Anti-Treaty officer is killed and 12 of his men are captured.

1919 - Two members of Royal Irish Constabulary are shot dead by Irish Volunteers including Seán Treacy and Dan Breen in an ambush at Soloheadbeg, Co. Tipperary: this is regarded as the first incident in the 'War of Independence'. Attacks on policemen continue for the rest of the year

1919 – Attack on military raiding party in Deansgrange, south Dublin.

 1921 – Burgery ambush – West Waterford IRA under Pax Whelan, George Lennon and George Plunkett from Dublin HQ, ambushed a convoy of Black and Tans returning to Dungarvan via the Burgery. One Black and Tan, Redman, was killed along with 2 IRA Volunteers (Pat Keating and Sean Fitzgerald).

1921 – An IRA firing squad executed Dungarvan RIC Constable Michael Hickey. Affixed to his tunic was the notation “police spy”. He was later interred, upon the intercession of the parish priest, in an unmarked grave, belonging to his fiancee’s family, at St. Mary’s Roman Catholic Church, Dungarvan.                     

1920 – The first ‘Black and Tans’ (auxiliary policemen) officially arrive in Ireland.1923 – Republican leader in Leitrim, Ned Bofin and three of his men are captured in the Arigna Mountains.

December 26 1920: Captain James Hickey, 4th Battalion, Third Tipperary Brigade, was bayoneted to death while a prisoner in Tipperary Military Barracks.

1923 – Free State soldiers in Wexford shot dead Michael Furlong at Oldcourt, in revenge for the previous days killing of three Free State troops as they suspected that he was an Anti-Treaty IRA member (he had fought in the recent Irish War of Independence in the IRA).

1923 – A republican prisoner, Murphy is shot dead by Free State troops in Kerry.

1922 – In Belfast, the RIC and USC raided the IRA’s headquarters, seizing weapons and names of IRA members. The Provisional Government in Dublin condemned this action as a breach of the truce. Meanwhile, four people were killed in the city.

1920 - RIC District Inspector William Redmond of "G" Division DMP is killed by Michael Collins' Squad.

1921 - Abortive IRA ambush took place at Drumcondra, Dublin city. One IRA man, Michael Francis Magee aged 24, was wounded and died the next day at King George V Hospital, Dublin and five men were captured. Patrick Doyle 29, Francis X Flood 19, Thomas Bryan 24 and Bernard 'Bertie' Ryan 21 were later hanged at Mountjoy Prison on 14 March 1921. The fifth man, Dermot O'Sullivan said to be only 17 years old was imprisoned.


1921 - British authorities hang six IRA volunteers for crimes of high treason and murder in Mountjoy Prison. There is some strong evidence to suggest at least some of the men were innocent of the crimes they were accused of.

1921 - The Battle of Brunswick Street. An Auxiliary patrol of two lorries and an armoured car, which was on its way to raid St. Andrews Club, 144 Brunswick St, Dublin was attacked on Brunswick Street (now Pearse street) near the corner of Erne St. In the gun battle that followed, three IRA volunteers and two policemen as well as two civilians (one of whom was Alderman Tom Kelly's brother), were killed. A number of IRA volunteers were captured and one of them, Thomas Traynor, was hanged on 25 April.                                                                                     

1920 – Resident Magistrate Alan Bell, from Banagher was killed. He was tasked by the British to track down Sinn Féin funds; he had successfully confiscated over £71,000 from Sinn Féin’s HQ and, by investigating banks throughout the country, was set to seize much more. He was pulled from a tram in south Dublin and shot three times in the head.

1922 – An IRA anti-treaty army convention announces it will no longer accept the authority of Free State Minister for Defense Richard Mulcahy.

1923 - More executions on this date in Irish history. This time the new Irish government which has taken a strong stance against anti-treaty activists executes sixteen anti-Treatyites between 12-14 March.

1923 - Two Republicans are executed for their part in a bank robbery in Mullingar.

1923 - Two National Army soldiers are shot and killed in Dublin. One is seized when unarmed and off duty in Portobello and shot in the head. The other is killed in an exchange of fire when he tries to search two republican fighters near Mountjoy Prison.

1923 - Anti-Treaty IRA officer Charlie Daly and three other Republican fighters are executed by Free State troops at Drumboe Castle, near Stranorlar in Co Donegal where they had been held since January. They are executed in reprisal for the death of a Free State soldier in a nearby ambush the day before.

1920 - IRA attacks Drombrane barracks, Co Tipperary.

1923 - Republican fighters derail the railway line on the bridge near Ardfert, County Kerry. The train crashes, killing its two drivers.

1921 – The IRA in Galway attacked the RIC barracks in Clifden. Two RIC constables were killed. The IRA column retreated to the Maam valley, where they ambushed British reinforcements at Munterowan and Screebe. The RIC burned several buildings in Clifden in reprisal for the attacks.

1922 – Speaking in Dungarvan, Co. Waterford, Eamonn De Valera states that if the Treaty is accepted, there will be civil war. 


1922 – In Belfast, four people were killed and numerous people were injured by grenades.

1923 – National Army troops sweep the vicinity of Newport in County Mayo, resulting in some arrests.

1923 – A Free State sweep in County Wexford encounters an anti-Treaty column. One National Army soldier and two republicans are killedi n the fire fight.

1923 – Anti-Treaty fighters explode a bomb at the Customs and Excise Offices in Dublin. One CID man is killed and another wounded.

1921 - As the Irish War of Independence continues, British Prime Minister Lloyd George and Fr. O’Flannagan, Acting Vice-President of Sinn Féin meet to discuss the Irish situation. The outcome of the meeting was described as “not altogether as satisfactory as could be hoped.

1921 - A British Army patrol was ambushed by a combined Waterford force at Pickardstown following a feint attack on the Tramore RIC Barracks. Present were W. Waterford O/C Pax Whelan, E. Waterford O/C Paddy Paul and Flying Column O/C George Lennon. Two IRA volunteers (Thomas O'Brien and Michael McGrath) were reportedly taken away and shot by members of the Devon Regiment.

1921 - The RIC raided a cottage near Ballinalee, County Longford, looking for Sean MacEoin. MacEoin opened fire from the cottage, killed District Inspector Thomas McGrath, wounded a constable, and escaped.

1921 – Tom Barry and the West Cork Flying Column routs a superior force from the Essex Regiment at Crossbarry.

1921 – On the same bloody day, the IRA ambush a convoy of RIC and Black and Tans near Dungarvan, Co. Waterford. Two men die on each side and the IRA subsequently execute the captured RIC sergeant Michael Hickey as a “police spy.”                                                                                                                                  31 May 1922. IRA volunteers shot dead one Special Constable in central Belfast and wounded another. That night, 9 Catholics were killed by loyalists and the Special Constabulary in the city. Two Protestant civilians were also killed.May  A total of 75 people were killed in Belfast during the month.

1922 – IRA volunteers raided two RIC barracks in NorthernIreland; one in Pomeroy and one in Maghera. They tied up the policemen and seized rifles and ammunition.

1922 – In separate incidents along the border, the IRA shot two Special Constables and one Protestant civilian. One of the constables survived, the other two were killed.

1923 – Free State troops of Costume Barracks, Athlone, shoot dead a civilian, John Murphy, they said they were pursing escaped prisoners.

1923 - Three Republican prisoners from Wexford IRA units are executed in Wexford town.

1923 - Three other Republicans are executed, two in Cork and the other in Dublin. The Republican 'government' issues a statement announcing a period of mourning and forbidding all public entertainments such as sporting events while executions of their men continue.

1923 - A Free State soldier is killed in a gun attack at Glasson, near Athlone.

1923 - The bodies of two civilians are found at Morehill, Tallow on the Waterford/Cork border.

1923 - Republican leader Liam Deasy is captured by Free State troops in the Galtee Mountains. He is not executed after he signs an order calling for men under his command to surrender.

1923 - Three National Army soldiers are killed in action (six have been killed in two days)

1921 - Drumcondra Murders: Republican activists James Murphy and Patrick Kennedy were arrested by Auxiliaries in Dublin. Two hours later, Dublin Metropolitan Police found the two men lying shot in Drumcondra: Kennedy was dead, and Murphy was dying when they were discovered.

14 December 1920:

Passenger services suspended on the Cavan and Leitrim Railway, until 1921, due to the refusal of drivers and enginemen to carry the Black and Tans on trains at Mohill and Ballinamore, leading to the arrest and internment of railway employees.

Attack on Dundrum RIC barracks, County Dublin. When the IRA attacking party had withdrawm the RIC and B&T’s came out of the Barracks presumably to search for the attackers. Some IRA men had remained hidden near to the barracks and threw 2 grenades into the middle of the assembled RIC and B&T’s. 1 IRA wounded. Enemy casualties believed to be high as the 2 grenades exploded in the middle of their party

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1920 – The War of Independence takes a new more violent turn as the IRA kill two Royal Irish Constabulary officers as they leave St. Patrick’s Day church ceremonies in Toomevara, Co. Tipperary.

January 17 1920 West Waterford Brigade commanded by George Lennon attacked Ardmore RIC barracks.


1923 – There is also a bomb attack on the Custom an Eccise office in Dublin. One CID man is killed and another is wounded.

1923 – A National Army Intelligence Officer, Frank Bolster, is shot and wounded while attending the theatre in Dublin.

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1923 – An elderly civilian is shot dead during a Post Office robbery in Monaghan town.

1923 - Two Anti-Treaty fighters are killed in a skirmish at Poleberry, County Waterford, while attempting to hold up a post office

1923 - Skirmish at Ballyconnell on the Cavan-Fermanagh border, Anti-Treaty IRA captain Michael Cull killed by plain clothes Free State officer while raiding a hardware shop

1921 – Two RIC men are killed in an ambush in Ballyfermot, Co Dublin.


1923 – Four IRA fighters are killed in an action at Kyle in County Wexford, between Wexford town and Enniscorthy. A party of National Army troops was travelling from Wexford to Enniscorthy, heavy machine-gun fire was opened on them, when reinforcements arrived from Wexford Military barracks the fighting had ceased but the reinforcements pursued the attackers, it was during this pursuit that the four men were killed.

1923 – The body of an Anti Treaty soldier was found on Upper Rathmines Road near Tranquilla Convent Dublin. The body of the deceased had 22 bullet wounds. The jury at the inquest found that Thomas O’Leary had been murdered and that the military authorities were uncooperative. Thomas O’Leary, 22 years old from 17 Armstrong Street Harold’s Cross Dublin.

1922 - National Army officer Tony Lawlor shoots dead republican prisoner, Patrick Mulrennan during a riot in the prison in Athlone.

1922 - Anti-Treaty fighters in Tullycrine, County Clare ambush a National Army column. A number of Free State troops and one Anti-Treaty IRA man are killed in the fight.

1922 - A number of gun and grenade attacks are carried out by Republican fighters in Dublin. Three people are wounded. In Limerick, Republicans raid the hospital and free six of their prisoners who were being treated there.
One Anti-Treaty fighter is killed in action at White's Cross, Cork.

1922 - With the Irish Civil War raging between pro and anti-Treaty forces, Éamon de Valera (anti-treaty) meets in secret with Richard Mulcahy, Commander of the pro-treaty government supporters to discuss an end to the violence. The discussions came to nothing. 

1922 – There is ‘intense firing’ for two hours, starting at midnight, by Anti-Treaty fighters on the Pro-Treaty troops in Dublin stationed at the Provisional Government headquarters in Merrion Square, the Bank of Ireland on College Green, the telephone exchange and City Hall, Dublin. Three people are wounded..

1922 – Pro-Treaty Brigadier General Adamson is shot dead by Republicans in Athlone in a dispute over who would occupy the military barracks there

 Republican activist Timothy Kenefick is abducted from his home in Cork city by Free State troops. He is shot dead and his body is dumped near Macroom. Anti-Treaty fighters attack National Army posts protecting the railway line around Limerick Junction, County Tipperary. One Free State soldier and one republican are killed and several others wounded in the fighting

1921 - Martial law is extended to counties Clare, Kilkenny, Waterford and Wexford from this date. During the Easter Rising in 1916, Lord Wimborne, a cousin of Winston Churchill and then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, declared martial law to maintain order in the streets of Dublin. This was later extended both in duration and geographical reach to the whole of the country with the consent of the British government. Much of Ireland was declared under martial law by the British authorities during the Irish War of Independence. A large portion of Ireland was also under de facto martial law during the Irish Civil War.

1923 - A column of 65  IRA fighters from Cork and Kerry IRA units, under Tom Barry, attacks Millstreet, Cork, under cover of darkness. They use 12 machine guns and take three National Army posts in the town, taking 39 prisoners and capturing one Lewis gun and 35 rifles. However they fail to take the main post in the Town Hall, held by 23 Free State soldiers. They withdraw after several hours – one party to Ballyvourney in Cork and the other to the Pap mountains in Kerry. Two Free State soldiers are killed and several more wounded. The National Army reports six Anti-Treaty fatalities and 19 wounded but the Republicans admit to only three wounded.

1923 - Three Anti-Treaty IRA men are executed in Dundalk, having been captured on 7 January.


1921 - British troops manning a checkpoint at O'Connell Bridge, Dublin, opened fire on a crowd of civilians, killing two and seriously wounding five.

1920 – 200 IRA volunteers under Frank Aiken attacked the RIC barracks in Newtownhamilton, Co Armagh. A mine was used to breach the barracks wall and a potato spraying machine was used to spray it with petrol, before it was set alight. The six policemen inside refused to surrender until the roof fell in.


December 6 1920:


An IRA unit attacked the RIC barracks in Camlough, Co Armagh. Roughly 300 IRA volunteers assaulted the building, which was held by six RIC constables, for several hours. Troops arriving from Newry were ambushed by the IRA before they retired. In reprisal, the Ulster Special Constabulary burned buildings in the village of Camlough. Local IRA leader Frank Aiken’s home was burned the next day, as were the homes of ten of his relatives.





1920Kevin Barry, an 18-year-old medical student, is hanged in Dublin for his part in a raid in which six soldiers were killed.

On Wednesday the 29th of December 1920 two policemen were killed in an ambush on the Main Street of Middleton County Cork. The ambush was carried out by the 4th Battalion of Cork Number 1 Brigade on a patrol of 10 RIC men.


1920 – An RIC man was shot dead in Ballinalee, Co Longford. The Black and Tans burned the village of Granard in reprisal.


1920Civilian Helen Quinn was shot dead by the police in Co Galway. Afraid of ambushes, police had begun to ‘reconnoiter by fire’, shooting blindly into woods and possible ambush sites. Helen Quinn was near one such site when the police opened fire, and was hit by a stray bullet. Irish public opinion was outraged when a military court of inquiry subsequently returned a verdict of “death by misadventure”. Soon afterward, the RIC Headquarters and the Chief of Police issued orders against wild firing from motor vehicles.


1920 – IRA fighters from West Waterford, under Column O/C George Lennon, ambushed a British army patrol at Piltown (Kinsalebeg), Co Waterford. Two soldiers were killed, six wounded and thirty captured but those captured were later released. RIC Constable Maurice Prendiville promised to leave the RIC but was fatally shot the next month at the Youghal Bridge.


1920 – Simultaneous IRA attacks were carried out on the RIC barracks and Marine Station at Ardmore, Co Waterford.

December 13 1920: Two IRA men from the West Clare brigade (William Shanahan, Brigade Police Officer and Michael McNamara, Captain of Doonbeg company) are captured - both men are shot dead while in custody:


1920 – Police burned the County hall in Tralee in revenge for the killing of two constables the previous day and fired shots at people going to Mass. Shops and businesses were forced by the RIC and Tans to remain closed until 9 November in an effort to recover the bodies of the dead RIC men. Local man John Conway was also shot dead by Police in the town.


1922 – A 20 strong Anti-Treaty IRA column encounters 250 Free State troops at Brockagh Fahy, Co Mayo. Six Republicans are captured, one is wounded and another is killed.


1922 – Five civilians are wounded by a grenade blast at an ambush in Henry Street, central Dublin.



1921 - Special Constable Robert Compston is the first member of the Ulster Special Constabulary (founded November 1920 to support RIC against IRA attacks) to be killed in the line of duty near Crosmaglen. Although the RIC (Royal Irish Constabulary) did not morph into the Royal Ulster Constabulary until June 1922, Compston is recognized by RUC as the first fatality.


1923 - Three Republican prisoners are executed in Dundalk. A crowd gathers outside the jail to say the rosary but is dispersed when Free State troops open fire on them.

1922 - A Provisional Government is set up to administer the handover from British rule to the new Irish Free State. The Cabinet is almost the same as that of the Irish Republic, with the exception of Éamon de Valera, Cathal Brugha and Austin Stack, who resign over the acceptance of the Treaty.

1922 - In County Tyrone, members of Monaghan GAA were arrested on their way to Derry. Among them were IRA volunteers, who carried plans to free IRA prisoners from Derry prison.

1923 - Two Republican fighters are killed in a skirmish in Tipperary.


1921 - The British government announces that any unauthorised person found in possession of arms, ammunition or explosives is liable to be executed.               

1922 - IRA volunteers attacked an RIC patrol in Clady, Co Tyrone. One constable was shot dead.

1923 - Republican officer Tom Barry, after contacts with some former IRA comrades on the Free State side, proposes that the Anti-Treaty IRA call a truce. Liam Lynch turns down the idea.

1923 - It is reported that tax collectors in Leitrim are refusing to collect taxes in the county, saying it is too dangerous. They are told to resume collection or be sacked within 3 weeks. The County is 50,000 pounds in arrears due to uncollected rates.

1923 – Republicans shoot dead a civilian James Gallagher in Gweedore, Donegal. He had previously fired at an IRA party 

1923 - Republicans open fire on Free State troops as they are leaving Mass in Clonmel, killing one civilian. Separately a National Army lieutenant is killed in an action near Scartaglen, Kerry along with a civilian. Three anti-Treaty fighters are wounded.

1923 - In Cork city a civilian, Michael Cusack, is mortally wounded in an attack on the city Courthouse.

1923 - 40 Republicans burn the railway station in Sligo town, destroying it and badly damaging seven engines and forty carriages. The Great Southern and Western Railway Company releases a report detailing the damage Anti-Treaty forces have caused to their property over the previous six months; 375 lines damaged, 42 engines derailed, 51 over-bridges and 207 under-bridges destroyed, 83 signal cabins and 13 other buildings destroyed. In the same month, Republicans destroy the railway stations at Ballybunion and Listowel.

1920 - RIC Constable Luke Finnegan was shot dead in Thurles, Co Tipperary. Afterwards, RIC men attacked property belonging to local Sinn Féiners, and some public property. This is reported as the first instance of police reprisals.

1921 - Glenwood Ambush: IRA in Clare, under Michael Brennan, ambushed an RIC lorry at Glenwood, between Sixmilebridge and Broadford. Six RIC men were killed and two more were wounded but escaped. The IRA took their weapons and onver 1000 rounds of ammunition before burning the lorry. Among the dead was RIC District Inspector William Clarke. In reprisals, the British forces burned 21 homes in the vicinity and arrested 22 people.                                                               

1921 - British Intelligence officer Lance Corporal MPC/MFP John Ryan was assassinated by IRA volunteers in a pub on Corporation Street in Dublin.

1921 - An IRA Volunteer of Cork 3 Brigade died in an accidental shooting.

1922 - Cumann na mBan (Irishwomen’s Council) at the behest of Countess Markievicz votes overwhelmingly to reject the Treaty. During the civil war, over 400 members of the movement were arrested by the Free State Government.

1923 - A party of 50 Anti-Treaty IRA fighters, operating from the Arigna mountains, raid the town of Ballyconnell in County Cavan. They shoot dead two Free State supporters and wounded another man. The Post Office was robbed and car dealership blown up. The raid was in reprisal for the shooting of a Republican named Cull the month before in the town

1923 - Eleven Republican prisoners are executed by the Free State – two in Limerick, four in Tralee and five in Athlone. In what was now becoming a brutal civil war between pro and anti-Treaty parties, the pro-treaty government had instituted in October 1921 an aggresive policy of execution of Republican prisoners or “Irregulars.” The Government’s view was that anti-Treaty irregulars were rebels fighting against a legitimate Irish authority, elected by the people. 77 official executions occured, 34 in January. Most of the people shot would have fought on the same side as their executioners in the War of Independence against Britain. The brutal reaction of the Irish government did bring a swift response with anti-treaty forces laying down their arms in April, but the bitterness of the civil war permeated Irish politics and society for much of the twentieth century.

1923 - One Free State soldier and one Anti-Treaty fighter are killed in two separate skirmishes in Co Kerry.                                                                                        

1923 - In Shorne, Rathmore, County Kerry, Anti-Treaty IRA fighter Micheal McSweeney is shot dead by Free State troops.


1923 - Free State troops use IRA prisoners to clear a blocked road near Bandon, Cork, a booby trap mine explodes while they are clearing a road block, killing two prisoners and injuring seven.

 

1921 - A battle  took place between the Kilkenny IRA unit and British forces at Garrykerin House on the Clonmel-Kilkenny road. One Black and Tan constable was killed.


1923 - Five Republican prisoners ( from IRA Kerry no. 3 Brigade) are killed at Cahersiveen, Kerry. They are taken from a National Army post in the town at gunpoint by Dublin Guard officers, under protest from the garrison. The prisoners are then shot in the legs to prevent escape and then blown up by a landmine by National Army troops.


1923 – One anti-Treaty fighter and one Free State soldier are killed in a gun battle after an attack on a Free State post at Rooskey, Co Roscommon.



.1923 - One Free State soldier is killed and another wounded in an ambush of a patrol near Cahirsiveen, Kerry                                                                                           .

1922 - In Northern Ireland, the IRA kidnaps more than forty loyalists activists and “B” Specials (a part-time auxiliary police force which was almost 100% protestant) in response to the arrest of some Monaghan footballers, 14 January who were travelling to play in an Ulster Championship game. At least one of this party was an IRA activist. After intense negotiations between Michael Collins and Winston Churchill, all parties on both sides were released. Following this incident, Churchill who was leading the UK effort on the transfer of power following the Treaty wrote to his wife Clementine in what might be termed an understatement “Ireland is sure to bring us every form of difficulty and embarrassment.“


1923 - An anti-Treaty IRA column attack the Free State post in Ballinamore, Leitrim. The National Army garrison of 35 men surrenders and the barracks is blown up. The prisoners are taken to the Arigna mountains.


1923 - A civilian, Thomas Roche is shot dead at a roadblock near Newcastlewest, Co Limerick by Free State troops when he failed to halt his car in time.

1920 – One RIC man was killed and one wounded in an IRA ambush in Ballina, Co Mayo.

1920 – Two British soldiers were killed and two wounded, in an IRA ambush at Oola, County Limerick.

1920 – IRA forces from East Mayo, led by Sean Corcoran and Sean Walsh captured the RIC barracks in Ballyvarey, Co Mayo. Arms and ammunition were taken.

1920 – RIC Detective Swanzy was shot dead by Cork IRA volunteers while leaving Church in Lisburn Co Antrim. Swanzy had been blamed by an inquest jury for the killing of Cork Mayor Thomas MacCurtain. Catholic residential areas of Lisburn were burned in revenge by local loyalists. Several people were later prosecuted for the burnings. Loyalists attack Catholic areas of Belfast in reprisal. A total of 33 people died over the next ten days in sectarian rioting and shooting in the city.

January 20 1921: IRA ambush of police patrol in a Crossley tender at Glenwood, four miles from Sixmilebridge, Co Clare by the Flying Column of the East Clare Brigade led by Michael Brennan. This ambush resulted in the deaths of six policemen

1922 – Two National Army soldiers are killed and three wounded in an ambush at Redmondstown, County Kilkenny on the road between Clonmel and Kilkenny. Free State commandant Frank Thornton is also badly wounded in the incident. Three other National Army officers had been captured by the irregulars in the same spot the previous night.

1922 – A Free State soldier is killed in an ambush of a convoy near Tralee.

1922 – Ambush of National Army troops by Anti-Treaty IRA at Tonduff, Abbeyleix, on the main road to Maryborough, Co Laois. A mine is exploded and fire is exchanged, Vol. Grace from Mountrath is killed while retrieving his rifle from the road. Brigadier Mick Gray is wounded. In the rounding up operation, 21 Republicans are taken prisoner but two Free State officers, Comdt. General Austin McCurtin and Comdt. Seán (Jack) Collison are killed on 4 August 1922.

1922 – Two Free State soldiers are killed in an ambush on the road from Killorglin to Tralee in Kerry

1922 – About 400 Republicans attack Golden, Tipperary, but fail to take it and two of their men are killed. Their armoured car is knocked out by artillery and the National Army takes 26 prisoners.

1920 - IRA volunteers attacked an RIC cycling patrol at Ballyrush, Co Sligo.

1922 - Free State troops, 350 men under Jerry Ryan, take Golden, Co Tipperary

Leo Murray, 19, and Charles ‘Rodney’ Murphy, 22 were killed by Free State forces at Stillorgan on 2nd September 1922.
Leo Murray of Charlemont Avenue, Dun Laoghaire, and Rodney Murphy of Deansgrange (pictured), had been two of the South County Dublin IRA’s most prized Volunteers during the War of Independence. As well as serving with the local Deansgrange Company, Murphy and Murray had also been chosen for the Dublin Brigade’s Active Service Unit, an elite squad of full-time Volunteers hand-picked from the Brigade’s different battalions. During the Civil War, both men again found themselves ‘on the run’, defending the Republic that had been proclaimed in 1916.

 The two young men murdered on Saturday 26 August 1922 and dumped in Yellow Lane Whitehall were Sean Cole aged 19 and Alfred Colley aged 21,both from North Inner City, were members of Fianna Eireann. Their murders were in reprisal for the killing of Michael Collins on August 22 in west Cork.

 Joe Whitty of the South Wexford Brigade IRA died  2nd September 1923 while on hunger strike, the first to do so while held captive by the  Free State regime. Joe (19) came from William Street (official title is Connolly Street, which is inscribed on his headstone at Ballymore Cemetery, Killinick). Joe was held at Tintown camp and was then transferred to a nearby hospital where he succumbed to his strike.           P.Wilson





 The Selton Hill Ambush Mohill Co Leitrim

was an incident during the Irish War of Independence, which occurred on March 11, 1921.

An Irish Republican Army flying column was ambushed by members of the Auxiliary Division of the RIC, at Selton Hill, near Mohill, County Leitrim. Six IRA officers of the Leitrim Brigade (including Sean Connolly from Longford, Seamus Wrynne V/C; Joseph O Beirne (or Beirne); John Reilly; Joseph Reilly and Capt M. E. Baxter ), were killed. The Auxiliaries were based in the town of Mohill.

Ernie O’Malley states that “Men from Bedfordshire Regiment were seen by a badly wounded IRA officer, who survived, to use rifle butts on the skulls of two wounded men.” He also says that the location of the column was given to the local D/I of the RIC by a doctor who had been in the British Army. The doctor had been given the information by an Orangeman. The Orangeman was later killed by the IRA but the doctor escaped to England. Leavy says six were killed and that they were betrayed by two of their compatriots. He does say that that one was promptly executed by the IRA and that the other escaped to England but died later in an accident

: 23 March 1921 – Clogheen Ambush: Six IRA men from the 1st Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade are massacred when they are surrounded in a barn in Clogheen by the British Army                    The six members of the IRA. who were massacred were:

Daniel Crowley, age 23, plasterer, second son of Patrick and Elizabeth Crowley of 171 Blarney St.
William Deasy, age 20, second son of William Deasy, Mount Desert, Blarney Rd.
Thomas Dennehy, age 21, sixth son of Kate and the late Patrick Dennehy of 104 Blarney St.
Daniel Murphy, age 24, second son of the late Edward Murphy, Orrery Hill, off Blarney St.
Jeremiah O'Mullane, age 23, eldest son of Jeremiah and Nora O'Mullane, 237 Blarney St.
Michael O'Sullivan, age 20, eldest son of Stephen and Margaret O'Sullivan, 281 Blarney St.

 On Sunday 6th September, Liam Hegarty and Michael Lynch were shot dead by Black and Tans at Ballyvourney. Both were unarmed and it caused outrage in the area. Large numbers of local people attended their funerals.

We now received information that secret service men were to visit the area and a guard was mounted at the Pass of Keimaneigh for almost a month. One suspect was captured and held prisoner for a few days. However he proved innocent. He was a British Magistrate named Brady who was touring Ireland on a motor-bike. He was well treated and was released unharmed. The company had now acquired a motor-bike which proved invaluable for delivering dispatches and conveying officers to meetings etc

Donnchadh MacNeilus  a Volunteer Officer. He was daringly rescued from Cork Jail by his comrades in the Cork Brigade on Armistice Day 1918.He was from Glencolmcille, Co Donegal 

A man of high principle and steadfast loyalty, Donnchadha worked for several years in Cork City and joined the Irish Volunteers there in 1914. He paraded with the Cork City Battalion on Easter Sunday 1916, and in 1918, his name became a household one in Ireland when he was dramatically rescued from Cork Jail, where he was awaiting trial for resisting arrest in arms - the first Volunteer to do so.
Subsequently Donnchadha took an active part in the Anglo-Irish struggle, using his engineering ability with dedicated zeal in the service of the I.R.A. During the Civil War he commanded the 1st Northern Division I.R.A and endured many privations and much ill treatment. Until his death on December 15th 1954, he remained faithful to the Republican cause


Mitchelstown Ambush - 17 Dec 1920:The convoy was a Lancia lorry and a car
The IRA had a machine gun and about 60 men. Ambush by East Limerick Brigade Column - led by Donnacha O'Hannigan - with help from Castletownroche Battalion Column (Cork No. 2) and Mitchelstown Company (Cork No.2 Brigade).
A tree was felled across the road a few miles from Mitchelstown
The lorry stopped and was fired at from both sides of the road.
The machine gun was operated by an ex-Casement Brigade man Maurice Meade. Meade had a maxim gun that had been captured at Major O'Grady's house, and was sent with a section of 5 men to a height overlooking the road, so that he had a clear view of the road. His instructions were not to open fire with the machine gun, unless he enemy tried to retreat, and he could then use the gun to stop their retreat. They waited in position from 5am to about 10am. 2 lorries and a car came along the road and Meade opened fire once they passed his position, in spite of his orders not to do so. Anyway the machine gun fire made the troops surrender
The soldiers then surrendered and were disarmed

 1919 - British troops “sack” the town of Fermoy, Co. Cork as reprisal for an ambush by the IRA the previous day which resulted in the death of one soldier. The attack by the IRA, led by Liam Lynch was the first deliberate ambush by the IRA on British troops and opened the War of Independence.


Commandant Seamus Rafter was born in Monalee, Ballindaggin, Co. Wexford, on 24 January 1873. He was a key figure in setting up the Enniscorthy branch of the Gaelic League. He became the commander of the IRB brigade in Wexford, and was Captain of ‘A Company’ in the Enniscorthy Battalion.

As an avid supporter of the Irish language he was a key figure in setting up the Enniscorthy branch of the Gaelic League. He was a trusted and inspiring leader, leading up to and during the Rising, when the tricolour flew for a week over Enniscorthy.

After the surrender, he was sentenced to death for his involvement later commuted and was interned in various prisons including Dartmoor and Frongoch. On his release he once again devoted himself completely to his dream of Irish independence. His untimely death was an irreparable loss to the movement.He died on 2 September 1918 as a result of an accidental explosion.

After his funeral, which was one of the largest ever seen in the town, he was interred in his native Ballindaggin.

 An unofficial government policy of reprisals began in Fermoy, County Cork. Two hundred British soldiers looted and burned several commercial buildings in the town, after 23 Cork Volunteers, under the leadership of Liam Lynch, augmented by Mick Mansfield and George Lennon of Waterford attacked members of the Royal Shropshire Light Infantry en route to services at the Wesleyan Church. Four soldiers were reportedly wounded, one fatally. Fifteen rifles were captured. Lynch was also wounded and taken to a Youghal safe house. Later he was transferred to West Waterford where he rested at Foley's in Ardmore and finally taken on to Cooney's farmhouse at Carriglea, Dungarvan. Here he recovered from his wound under the care of Dr B. Moloney from the nearby town before returning to Fermoy area.




Drumboe Martyrs,On the morning of 14 March 1923, some six weeks before the end of the Civil War, four IRA Volunteers, Charlie Daly (26), Sean Larkin (26), Dan Enright (23) and Tim O'Sullivan (23), were marched from their cell at Drumboe Castle to an improvised firing range about 300 yards up a gently sloping field in the woods at Drumboe. It was at this spot that the four men were executed by a Free State firing squad and their bodies were thrown into a ready-made grave. The devotion of these men to their republican principles was never more evident than on that cold March morning in 1923, 


 1922 – Fall of Waterford Captain Ned O’Brien leads 100 National Army troops in boats in an attack on the quays in Waterford, taking 12 prisoners. Free State troops then cross the river Suir into the city. General Prout brings their field gun down to the Suir Ferry bank to fire at close range into the Anti-Treaty-held Post Office, which then surrenders. The Republicans abandon Ballybricken Prison on Friday afternoon, 21 July escaping to Mt. Congreve in Kilmeadan, the Comeraghs and eventually, Dungarvan where many men of the Flying Column give up the struggle. Lennon resigns 1 August in a letter to First Division O/C Liam Deasy, citing disagreements over “tactics employed by our side”. Two Free State soldiers have been killed in the fighting in Waterford and 19 wounded. At least one Anti-Treaty fighter is fatally wounded. Five civilians are also killed.

 August 11 1922 – A Free State Naval landing takes place at Kenmare. Commandant Tom “Scarteen” O’Connor (formerly local IRA commander) lands unopposed with 200 pro-treaty men and occupies Rathmore and Millstreet. Kerry operations in August have cost the National Army a total of 11 killed and 114 wounded. On September 9 the republicans attacked and retook Kenmare.Tom (Scarteen) O'Connor and his bother John were shot dead in their home in Main Street. 130 prisoners were taken but were soon released by their Republican captors. The town did not come back under Free-State control until December 6.                                  Marta Ring

  Veterans of 1916 Rising (Fingal Brigade) at Ashbourne memorial 1950s.

About midnight on Sunday 14 November 1920, Fr Griffin was lured from the presbytery by British forces directly, or someone aiding them. He was taken to Lenaboy Castle where he was questioned. After being interrogated, he was shot through the head and his body was taken away by lorry and buried in an unmarked grave at Cloghscoltia near Barna.

1920 Nov 20. His remains were discovered by a local man, William Duffy while he was attending cattle.

On December 18th, 1920, two I.R.A. men, William Delaney and Captain James J. Looby, were shot by British forces near Kilfeacle, Tipperary. They were both members of D Company, 2nd, Battalion, Third Tipperary Brigade. They were captured near Dualla, on December 17th, 1920, and taken to Cashel R.I.C. barracks by the police. The following day they were  taken from police custody by the military and were taken to Tipperary military barracks where they were tortured. On the evening of the 18th, they were tied to a gun carriage and on the way back to Cashel they were killed near Kilfeacle, while still tied to the gun carriage. Details of how they were killed differ in that some accounts say they were shot and some say they were bayoneted.
Thomas McEver was brutally tortured and murdered and left on the side of the road during the War of Independence

 EASTER MONDAY 99 years ago was a damp day in Fingal.    Those who felt so inclined attended the races at Fairyhouse. The punters were unaware of the other activities in the area, act ivites which were to change the course of the  history of our nation. On their way home for the races they passed through the trenches dug out by the volunteers of the Fingal Brigade.  The young lads who had been drilling in the Dublin Mountains for over three years were soon to realise that this the the real thing.    The rebellion was on!    On Easter Sunday Volunteers met at Knocksedan Bridge outside of Swords, getting there by foot or on bikes.  They were armed with Lee Enfield rifles and some had American shotguns. On the Tuesday morning, in answer to a request from Coomdt. Connolly, a party of 2 men, lead by  Dick Coleman from Swords, were sent to reinforce units in Dublin City.  On reaching the G.P.O., they were told by Connolly to attempt to relieve the Mendacity Institute on the Quays . Connolly remarked ' you will hardly get there boys, but try your best.'., they set out.  Under intense firing from rifles and machine guns they reached the Mendacity and by dashing in one by one on command, the whole party got in without mishap.  Here the men from Fingal had a most venturesome experience as a fierce battle took place under Sean Hueston . One man, Peter Wilson from Swords lost his life.  The garrison had in time, to surrender and with their leader Dick Coleman they were sentenced to death.  This was commuted to penal servitude for life and they soon found themselves being transported on cattle boats to British prisons like Lewes and Dartmore.    When they were released with the general amnesty, Dick Coleman soon became involved in politics again, until he died in USk prison on December 9th 1918.  This had been his fifteenth prison.  During the incident at the Mendacity the remainder f the Fingal Brigade were involved in the fiercest and much documented battle of the Rising; The battle of Ashbourne.      Bernadette Marks..  2/4/2015

On Easter Monday 1916 my father, James Heron was at Fairyhouse for the Irish Grand National and didn’t know the Rising had started ‘till he got back to Dublin. He used to have the ticket stub for the train trip to Ratoath. He joined his unit in the Imperial Hotel (Cleary’s). At one stage he had to run across O’Connell Street to the G.P.O with a dispatch and back again with the answer while the bullets were flying in every direction. He was probably one of the youngest and fittest in the group.. When they had to vacate their post, and try to get to safety, one of the group got shot in the ankle. It was night and they took refuge in the basement of a tenement building on Buckingham Street; where the British troops captured them the next morning. It transpired that a young woman had slipped out a back window and betrayed them. Most of the population were anti the Rising and shouted insults at them when they were being escorted away. They were interned for 3 or 4 days in the Custom House, thence to Richmond Barracks and later to Frongoch. In the film ‘Mise Eire’ there is a very brief shot taken from above of somebody running across O’Connell Street. I often wondered could this be my father? P.S The Group was led by Commandant W.J. Brennan-Whitmore, and the story is recounted in his book ‘Dublin Burning’.     Liam Heron, Swords, Co. Dublin.

July 9 1922: The Free State barracks in Bailieboro, Cavan is attacked and taken, the arms of its garrison are seized. An anti-Treaty prisoner, Edward Boylans is shot dead in Cavan barracks as he tries to escape.

Edward Boylan joined the Irish Volunteers in 1918 and later fought in the War of Independence. Having chosen the anti-Treaty side in the Civil War, he was arrested at its outset by the Free State forces in the general round-up of republican activists. He was taken to Cavan Military Barracks where he joined other prisoners in an escape attempt. In the attempt, he was fatally wounded and he died on 25 July 1922 of his wounds at Clones Military Hospital. He was 21 years of age

 The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) was a secret organization founded in Dublin in 1858 by James Stephens (1824–1901) to secure the creation of an independent Irish republic. It was closely linked with the Fenian Brotherhood in the USA and its members came to be called Fenians. The primary object of the IRB was to organize an uprising in Ireland; the Fenian Brotherhood worked to support the IRB with men, funds, and a secure base. The British government acted swiftly; IRB leaders including Stephens were arrested.

The 1867 Fenian Rising, led by Thomas Kelly, was a failure. The Home Rule League, the Land League, the Irish Volunteers, and Sinn Fein often appeared to supersede the IRB as political forces; but Fenians were active in all these organizations. The Home Rule Bills failed to satisfy them and in World War I the IRB, led by Pádraic Pearse, sought German help for the abortive Easter Rising. The IRB was subsequently superseded by the Irish Republican Army.

John O Reilly,


  Sept 25-1917 – Thomas Ashe dies in the Mater Hospital in Dublin from the combined effects of a hunger strike and forced feeding at Mountjoy Jail.

 My great grandfather & grand mother were both involved in the 1916 Rising.

Martha Murphy joined the Irish Citizen Army in 1913. She was mobilised and reported to Liberty Hall on Easter Sunday and again on Monday. She prepared food and attended wounded under the instructions of Dr. Kathleen Lynn. She went to the GPO on Tuesday and followed a party to the Imperial Hotel. She was arrested near Marlborough Church and taken to the Custom House. She was released from Kilmainham Jail in May.
Michael Murphy was a member of Irish Volunteers, 2nd Batt. Company D, Dublin Brigade. He was active at the GPO, & Imperial Hotel, O'Connell Street.During his internment at Frongoch Prison he as a member of the Camp Committee and played a prominent role in organising a hunger strike and the refusal of prisoner to give their names there.  He served as a Company Captain during the War of Independence. He was part of the anti-Treaty IRA force occupying the Four Courts in 1922.  'Roar' 

 the RIC fired at crowds leaving Mass in Tralee. A French journalist on the spot wrote, ‘Volley after volley resounded to the terror of the people’. ‘I do not remember, even in the [First World] War, having seen people as profoundly terrified as those of this small town, Tralee.

For the next seven days, ‘the Tans’, as they were known locally, made all the local businesses shut their doors and allowed no food in or out of the town. They imposed a strict curfew and shot people who appeared on the streets. Their victims included two dead, Tommy Wall and John Conway.  They also systematically burned any businesses they could link to ‘Sinn Feiners’. By the end of the week, the international press, many of whose organs had correspondents covering the conflict in Ireland and who had come to Tralee, was reporting that the town was on the very verge of starvation.

The regular British Army, whose officers tended to disapprove of police reprisals, by all accounts was the only body that saved Tralee from worse destruction.

Some pressmen had some sympathy for the Black and Tans’ situation, having seen dozens of their comrades shot and fearing their own assassination at any moment,  but many others, particularly in continental Europe and North America, did not. In Ireland itself, the Freeman’s Journal, an organ of moderate nationalism screamed that, ‘A War on Women and Children’ was taking place in Tralee,.    Aida Sullivan

 My grandparents knew and fought with Countess Markievitz. My grandma was great friends with her. My grandma's name was Kathleen O'Toole marriage name Cashin...

Catherine Finn.


My Grandfather John Kelly served in the 1916 Rising in St. Stephens Green Garrison and College of Surgeons.   I also know that he was interned in Frongoch and took an active part in the War of Independence.  After one operation his home was raided and he had to go on the run for a while.  He died in October 1960.   An interesting thing about him is that his name was not really John Kelly, in real name was John Curran.  Kelly was his mother’s maiden name and his father raised the family as Kelly, we are not sure why.  John only discovered his real surname as an adult. When he married in 1905; his church marriage certificate gives his name as John Curran Kelly but just John Curran on Civil Certificate.   He lived as a Kelly, fought as a Kelly, got his pension as a Kelly, so John Kelly was born to take part in the war of independence; he already had a secret identity.

NJ Sharkey

  MISS ADRIAN,OLDTOWN. CO. DUBLIN is one of the most outstanding women in Fingal.  At present she is secretary of the Old Age Pension Committee. She is also a member of the old Cumann na mBan who distinguished themselves so nobly in the fight for Irish freedom. Her grandfather, Dr. Adrian was the first who dressed the wounds of Lord Edward Fitzgerald. He was a very eminent member of the United Irishmen of that period.    Fingal Fingerpost March 1944.

 


Andrew J. Bermingham, 1st Battalion, 'C' Company, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers was mobilised on Easter Monday 1916 for Blackhall Place, but could not reach his Company. He joined forces at the G.P.O. instead.  After the surrender he was arrested and deported to Knutsford Prison on 1st May 1916,
this is from his daughter Patsy Sherlock 

 


There is an interesting grave in the grounds of Dr. Steeven's Hospital, Dublin where  a stone was erected in 1930s to two men who were killed during 1916.Rising.   SEAN OWENS of the 4th Dublin Brigade, was killed fighting in the South Dublin Union. He was aged 24, an artificial limb maker from The Coombe.   PETER WILSON aged 40 was from Swords, a member of the Fingal Brigade.  He was killed fighting at the Mendicity Institute.  BM



 James and Kieran Kenny are listed as having fought at Marrowbone Lane during 1916 Rising.  Having served their time in Kenny's Merchant House, Banagher, Co. Offaly, they decided to travel to Dublin to seek new employment.  They joined the IRB and were among the volunteers who marched out to collect the arms which had been shipped in the yacht Asgard at Howth on July 26th 1914.   When the two Kennys left Banagher they joined A Company 4th Dublin Brigade, which included Commdt. Eamonn Ceannt, Vice Commdt. Cathal Brugha, Adjutant James Murphy, Quartermaster Little Jim Kenny, Squad Leader Kieran Kenny wit the title of Captain. On Easter Monday 1916 at 6.40 am Kieran Kenny and Liam O'Flaherty were chosen by Eamonn Ceannt and entrusted with the mobilization orders for the start of the 1916 Rising.  Their instructions were to deliver orders to the various outposts across Dublin  City. Having carried out these orders they returned to A Company which was mobilized in South Dublin Union. Some stayed there and others dispersed to the Distillery at Marrowbone Lane.  They are laid to rest in Clonmacnoise where a bronze plaque reads; ' In loving memory of the Offaly heros who took part in the insurrection in Dublin Easter week 1916'. (from Marathon Marriage by M.F. Kenny).

 My grand uncle was Charles Burke. He was born in 1898 and fought against the black and tans in the war of independence. He lived in Erne street in dublin. When the civil war came along he joined the free state army where he was a leftenent. He was stationed in Wexford and on the 27th January 1923 the train he was on was ambused on it's way to Dublin. He was returning fire but was hit and bled badly. He knew the people who shot him as they had fought with him against the British. He died in the infirimay in Wexford town on 29th January 1923. He is buried in the Free State plot close to Michael Collins in Glasnevin. You will also find mention of him on find a grave website

Jim Burke

Sheemore Co Leitrim. 

 An Irish Republican Army flying column, no. 1 Column, South Leitrim Brigade of the I.R.A., carried out an ambush on the Black and Tans, at Sheemore, near Carrick on Shannon, County Leitrim. The British suffered numerous casualties, and admitted one fatality, a captain in the Bedfordshire Regiment, although local sources claimed several more were killed.

The Black and Tans later ran amok in Carrick on Shannon, burning and looting. Among the premises they burned were Carrick on Shannon Rowing Club and the Premises of the Local newspaper, the Leitrim Observer.

Michael Whelan.

we took the action deliberately, having thought over the matter and talked it over between us. Treacy had stated to me that the only way of starting a war was to kill someone, and we wanted to start a war, so we intended to kill some of the police whom we looked upon as the foremost and most important branch of the enemy forces ... The only regret that we had following the ambush was that there were only two policemen in it, instead of the six we had expected.   Dan Breen

 James Connolly’s wife and daughter visit him in Kilmainham Gaol where he lies seriously wounded.

Daughter Nora wrote later on a  Portrait of a Rebel Father:

“On Tuesday I went with mother. There were soldiers on guard at the top of the stairs and in the small alcove leading to Papa’s room. They were fully armed and as they stood guard they had their bayonets fixed. In the room there was an R.A.M.C. officer with him all the time. His wounded leg was resting in a cage. He was weak and pale and his voice was very low. Mother asked was he suffering much pain. “No, but I’ve been court-martialled today. They propped me up in bed. The strain was very great.” She knew then that if they had court-martialled him while unable to sit up in bed, they would not hesitate to shoot him while he was wounded. Asked how he had got the wound he said: “It was while I had gone out to place some men at a certain point. On my way back I was shot above the ankle by a sniper. Both bones in my leg are shattered. I was too far away for the men I had just placed to see me and was too far from the Post Office to be seen. So I had to crawl till I was seen. The loss of blood was great. They couldn’t get it staunched.” He was very cheerful, talking about plans for the future, giving no sign that sentence had been pronounced an hour before we were admitted.

He was very proud of his men. “It was a good clean fight. The cause cannot die now. The fight will put an end to recruiting. Irishmen will now realise the absurdity of fighting for the freedom of another country while their own is enslaved.”

Tom Barry's Wedding Photograph, Vaughan's Hotel, 22 August 1921

Seated on ground: (far right) Gearoid O'Sullivan. First row, seated: (second left) Harry Boland, (from sixth left) Liam Deasy, the bride Leslie Price, de Valera - who insisted on sitting between bride and groom - Tom Barry; (from right) Countess Marcievicz, Mary MacSwiney, First row, standing: (far left) Sean Lehane, (fifth left) Jim Hurley, Ted Sullivan, Michael Collins - his head is lowered as he suspected the photographer was an informer - (tenth left) Dick Mulcahy, (12th left) Eoin O'Duffy, (16th left) Emmet Dalton, (15th right) Tom Cullen, (13th right) Rory O'Connor, Last row: (second and third left) Sean Hales, Liam Devlin, (far right) Joe O'Reilly

 One Cumann na mBan member, Sighle Bean Ui Donnachadha, remarked: “De Valera refused absolutely to have Cumann na mBan girls in the posts. The result, I believe, was that the garrison there did not stand up to the siege as well as in other posts.”

Helena Molony, Madeleine ffrench-Mullen, Dr Kathleen Lynn, Rose McNamara and Elizabeth Farrell are among those whose life-changing decisions would help change the course of Irish history.

Among the last people to leave the GPO were Cumann na mBan members Winnie Carney, Julia Grenan and Elizabeth O’Farrell. Grenan was a dispatch carrier during Easter week and brought information from the GPO to garrisons around the city.

In the GPO, Pearse selected Farrell to present the surrender to the British authorities. She dodged sniper fire and dealt with belligerent British authorities while criss-crossing the city trying to convince Rising leaders that the decision to capitulate was genuine.

Elsewhere, Rose McNamara, the officer in command of the female battaliion at the Marrowbone Lane Distillery, presented herself and 21 other women to the British at the surrender.

 ·  

 Thomas 'Tom' Barry, one of the most prominent guerrilla leaders in the Irish Republican Army during the Irish War of Independence (d. 2 July 1980).

The son of an RIC man, and second of fourteen children, Thomas Bernadine Barry was born on 1 July 1897 in Killorglin Co. Kerry. He spent his youth in Rosscarbery and Bandon. It was a sense of adventure that inspired him to join the British Army in 1915. On the communiqué board while serving, he read – REBELLION IN DUBLIN – the accounts of the 1916 Rising – the shelling, the arrests and executions. Away from home it was a rude awakening. Though wounded on the borders of Asiatic Russia, he recuperated and fought in Egypt, Jaffa and Jerusalem. He served in Italy and France; when the war ended he returned to Ireland in February 1919.

Through his association with the Hales' of Knocknacurra, founders of the Volunteers in West Cork, he got involved in the Volunteer movement. His war experience and his demeanour found favour with the Brigade Officers. Accordingly, his appointment as the Flying Column O/C 3rd West Cork brigade in October 1920 set him an unprecedented challenge. He had asked, and was given, absolute command. His decisions would be his and his alone without interference. He would take full responsibility, would be subject to no authority and would have to take the blame for any failure or disaster.

Kilmichael ambush was a turning point in the War of Independence. It boosted IRA morale; also it gained Barry greater respect as Commander. A member of the Flying Column, Jim Kearney said, 'Any man who would stand on the road before an on-coming enemy; men would die for him'.

Because of his innovative military success, Michael Collins sought Barry's presence in Dublin in May 1921 and in London during the Treaty negotiations. Later, disagreeing with the Treaty terms, he became the first prisoner of the Civil War. Barry was engaged in the 1923 cease-fire/dump arms deal; then in the 1930's he spent a term as IRA Chief-of-Staff; in 1949 he addressed huge crowds in New York, Chicago, Pittsburgh and Boston – his voice rang out, 'My one aim is to unite the Irish people – one race'. His lifelong wish was to end the partition of people on the one island.

 1922 - There is a four hour gun battle on the border near Dundalk between pro and Anti-Treaty fighters. The republicans eventually retreat across the border into Northern Ireland where they cannot be followed. Elsewhere, there are renewed attacks on Free State troops in Dublin and the railway bridge at Carrick on Shannon is blown up and destroyed by Republicans. from the Leitrim brigade  IRA  One Free State soldier is killed in an ambush at Blessington, County Wicklow. Four more are wounded in an ambush near Enniscorthy, County Wexford. Free State troops occupy Bandon and Dunmanway, County Cork without resistance..


J.McCumiskey.

 

I R A  Prisoners in Frongoch, wales 

1920 - IRA forces from East Mayo, led by Sean Corcoran and Sean Walsh captured the RIC barracks in Ballyvarey, County Mayo. Arms and ammunition were taken. RIC Detective Swanzy was shot dead by Cork IRA volunteers while leaving Church in Lisburn County Antrim. Swanzy had been blamed by an inquest jury for the killing of Cork Mayor Thomas MacCurtain. Catholic residential areas of Lisburn were burned in revenge by local loyalists. Several people were later prosecuted for the burnings. Loyalists attack Catholic areas of Belfast in reprisal. A total of 33 people died over the next ten days in sectarian rioting and shooting in the city

1918 – Constance Markievicz while detained in Holloway prison, became the first woman to be elected MP to the British House of Commons.

1920 - In revenge for previous actions by the Black and Tans, a small group of men from the East Mayo Brigade hijacked a train and drove it past the barracks at Ballaghaderreen whilst firing at the building. The attack took the crown forces by surprise but there are no casualties

1920 - West Waterford Brigade commanded by George Lennon attacked Ardmore RIC barracks

.Eddie Carmody of Ballylongford, County shot on November 22nd 1920:

Lieutenant Eddie Carmody was born in Moyvane, Co. Kerry and at a very young age moved to Ballylongford to work on a local farm. He was an outstanding Gaelic footballer and an all round athlete. He was a man of great courage, honesty and innate chivalry. He was one of the first local men to join Óglaigh na hÉireann becoming at first the Quarter Master of his local company and then a Lieutenant within the IRA. While on his way to an arms dump outside Ballylongford on the 22nd November 1920, he was ambushed by a patrol of Black and Tans. He was severely wounded after being fired upon several times, but still managed to struggle away a few hundred yards. The Black and Tans following his trail of blood found him after a brief search and dragged him onto the roadway, where he was kicked and beaten with rifle butts. After being stabbed by the soldier’s bayonets in a frenzied attack he was shot several times in the face resulting in his death. His body was then put onto a cart and dragged through the village to the local barrack's, where he was left outside in a turf shed till his father collected his body the following day. Eddie Carmody was unarmed at the time.

November 23 1920: Among the IRA men aressted in Dublin in the aftermath of Bloody Sunday was Thomas Whelan, a 23 year old from Connemara who was living at 14 Barrow St, Ringsend. He was to be hung on 14th March 1921.

1920 - After an RIC officer was shot dead, RIC officers attacked many houses in Cork city.

1921 - Dáil Éireann debated, resolved and finally on 11 March declared war on the British administration.

1921 - The North Longford IRA officer Sean Connolly and five other IRA volunteers were killed by British troops at the Selton Hill ambush, near Mohill, Co Leitrim when their ambush position was betrayed by a local Orangeman.

1921 - Three RIC men were attacked by the IRA near the corner of Victoria Square and Church Street in Belfast resulting in the death of all three. Two civilians were also injured in the attack and one of them later died in the hospital.

1923 - A civilian suspected of Republican sympathies is shot dead on Donore Avenue Dublin by Free State Intelligence officers.

 


1921 - In Belfast, an IRA volunteer was killed by a loyalist mob, one civilian was killed by a stray RUC bullet, and one civilian was killed by a grenade thrown into his home.

1920 - Republicans took over the unoccupied mansion at Caherguillamore, County Limerick, for a fund-raising dance. However British troops and RIC police surrounded them and in the ensuing gun battle five IRA volunteers and one Black and Tan were killed.

December 20 1920: The Kilkenny IRA unit ambushed an RIC/military patrol at Nine Mile House, Co Tipperary, eight soldiers and one RIC man were killed.


: IRA volunteers destroyed the Drangan RIC barracks and captured weapons.

 IRA volunteers ambushed British troops at Kylebeg near Modreeny in North Tipperary. Members of the IRA’s North Tipperary Flying Column led by Sean Gaynor attacked a mixed group of 25 British soldiers, RIC policemen and Black & Tans, travelling from Borrisokane to Cloughjordan killing four and injuring 14.


1919 – An unofficial government policy of reprisals began in Fermoy, Co Cork. Two hundred British soldiers looted and burned several commercial buildings in the town, after 23 Cork Volunteers, under the leadership of Liam Lynch, augmented by Mick Mansfield and George Lennon of Waterford attacked members of the Royal Shropshire Light Infantry en route to services at the Wesleyan Church. Four soldiers were reportedly wounded, one fatally. Fifteen rifles were captured. Lynch was also wounded and taken to a Youghal safe house. Later he was transferred to West Waterford where he rested at Foley’s in Ardmore and finally taken on to Cooney’s farmhouse at Carriglea, Dungarvan. Here he recovered from his wound under the care of Dr B. Moloney from the nearby town before returning to Fermoy area.


1920   IRA members ambushed of a lorry full of British soldiers on Church St Dublin. Three soldiers were killed, the first in the city since the Easter Rising of 1916. IRA man Kevin Barry was arrested at the scene and charged with murder.

1920 - Two RIC men were killed in an ambush by East Mayo and South Sligo IRA brigades, at Ratra near Frenchpark, County Roscommon. One volunteer died in the action; Black and Tans mutilated his body and dragged it through the streets of Ballaghaderreen.

1920 - Six RIC men were killed by the IRA in an ambush at the Rineen Ambush, County Clare. Resident Magistrate Lendrum was shot during an attempt to commandeer his car at a level crossing near Doonbeg, County Clare, by the IRA. His body was concealed in a lake, and returned to his family on their request. Following this, and the ambush earlier in the day, the Black and Tans took reprisals, killing six civilians in Milltown Malbay, Lahinch and Ennistymon, and burned twenty-six buildings, including the town halls in Lahinch and Ennistymon.

1919 - Harry Boland and Michael Collins engineer Éamon de Valera's escape from Lincoln Jail in England. He is dressed as a woman                                                                                                  1920 - Frank Shawe-Taylor, land agent, was shot dead near Athenry, Co Galway

. In November 1920, a Galway city Catholic priest, Fr. Michael Griffin was abducted and shot by the British forces. His body was found in a bog in Barna

1920, The hunger strike in Cork Jail,  At the request of Arthur Griffith, acting President of the Irish Republic, the remaining nine prisoners( John and Peter Crowley, Thomas Donovan, Michael Burke, Michael O'Reilly, Christopher Upton, John Power, Joseph Kenny and Seán Hennessy), on hunger strike ended their fast on 12 November 1920 after 94 days without food.

Michael Fitzgerald, Joseph Murphy and Terence MacSwiney died on hunger strike on 17 and 25 October 1920, respectively


1920 – In revenge for previous actions by the Black and Tans, a small group of men from the East Mayo Brigade hijacked a train and drove it past the barracks at Ballaghaderreen whilst firing at the building. The attack took the crown forces by surprise but there are no casualties.

1921 – In Belfast, an IRA volunteer was killed by a loyalist mob, one civilian was killed by a stray RUC bullet, and one civilian was killed by a grenade thrown into his home.

1921 - The South Leitrim Brigade of the IRA ambush a Black and Tan Convoy, at the Sheemore ambush, near Carrick on Shannon. Several casualties result, including the death of a Captain in the Bedfordshire Regiment. Black and Tans later ran amok in Carrick, burning and looting, and burned both the premises of the Leitrim Observer newspaper and the local rowing club to the ground.

1922 - IRA volunteers under Mick Mansfield seized the RIC Barracks in Dungarvan, Co Waterford.

1922 - IRA shot dead two RIC constables in Tipperary, Co Tipperary.

1923 - The body of a National Army sergeant, Thomas McGrath, is found near, Clonmel, Tipperary. Killed by four gunshots. He is reported to the fourth soldier assassinated in the area within a month.

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1922 - Two RIC constables were shot dead after leaving a pub in Lisdoonvarna, County Clare.

1923 - A Postmaster J O'Reilly, is shot dead by Republican raiders on the post office at Clonakilty, Co Cork.

1920 - IRA volunteers of the 1st Cork Brigade captured Carrigtwohill RIC barracks. They were commanded by Mick Leahy. This is reported as the first 'official' attack on an RIC barracks.

1920 - Recruitment begins for the 'Black and Tans', Britain's unofficial auxiliary army.

1921 - East Cork was a hotbed of IRA activity during the War of Independence. Exactly one year after the IRA captured the Carrigtwohill RIC barracks British forces ransack and burn houses four miles away in Midleton, Co. Cork in reprisal for the deaths of three RIC officers on 29 December.                                             1921  - The IRA ambush a British army convoy near Clonbanin, County Cork, killing Brigadier General H. R. Cumming, one of the highest ranked British officers to die in the Irish War of Independence.

1921 - Two ambushes took place in Dublin, one near Parnell Square and one in Clontarf, both in the north of the city. In both incidents, IRA members threw hand grenades and exchanged fire with British troops. One civilian was killed and four wounded. No combatant casualties were reported.

1923 - A Free state patrol comes upon a 36-man strong Anti-Treaty column about to attack Cahersiveen, Co Kerry. The IRA retreat, fighting a rearguard action against pursuing National Army troops through the Garrane mountains. In the running fights, 3 Free State soldiers killed. Two Republicans, including one Anti-Treaty engineer (Dan Clifford) are killed, allegedly after being wounded and then falling into the hands of the pro-Treaty troops. Another later died of wounds. The National Army claims that three more Anti-Treaty fighters were killed in the action and carried away by their comrades. Six Anti-Treaty men are captured, five of whom are executed on 28 March.

1921 - Two RIC men were shot dead by the IRA in a hotel in the centre of Belfast.

1921 - West Waterford Column under George Lennon ambushes enemy patrol at the v intersection outside Cappoquin on the Cappoquin to Mt. Mellary road.                                                              1920 – The IRA attacked the RIC barracks at Cookstown, County Tyrone. IRA man Patrick Loughrane was killed.

1920 Nov 1.  Eileen was shot outside Gort. British Military Court found that she was shot by black & tans. Two lorries of Tans were passing through Kiltartan. She was sitting in front of her farmhouse when she was shot. The Tans  defence was that they always fire rifles when passing through inhabited areas, to deter ambushes

1921 – An IRA ambush was mounted at Rathcoole, near Banteer, County Cork. Landmines were exploded under three lorries, killing two Auxiliaries and wounding four RIC.                                                  1921 – Coolbawn Massacre: 36 IRA Volunteers in Kilkenny tried to ambush a British Army convoy, at Coolbawn, between Castlecomer and Athy travelling with a mine. However the British were tipped off by a local woman, Florrie Draper. The British troops crept up on the ambushers and opened fire, killing two and injuring one. Ms Draper’s house is burned as a reprisal.

1921 – Three British officers, dressed in civilian clothes but carrying pistols, were captured near Fethard, Tipperary, by IRA Volunteers under Ernie O’Malley. O’Malley had them shot by firing squad at dawn the next day in reprisal for the execution of captured IRA men by the British.


1920 - Sinn Féin County Councilor John Lynch of Kilmallock, Limerick was assassinated by British agents at the Exchange Hotel Dublin..   Ambush in Bunadreen, County Kerry

 The Free State's Provisional Government puts the "Public Safety Bill" before the Dáil, setting up military courts which allow for the execution of men captured bearing arms against the state and aiding and abetting attacks on state forces. It passes by 48 votes to 18. The Irish Labour Party oppose it.

1921 - In Belfast there was a shootout between an RIC patrol and an IRA unit, one RIC constable and one IRA volunteer were killed.    1921 - The IRA informer Dan Shields betrayed the position of an IRA column in Nadd, West Cork. Three IRA volunteers were killed in the subsequent British ambush.

1921 - The IRA North Longford commander Sean MacEoin was captured at Mullingar and charged with the murder of an RIC detective. This was a severe blow to the IRA in that area.

1921 - Two IRA volunteers were killed in a skirmish with British forces at Ballynamrossagh, Co Tipperary.

1921 - Attack on Crown forces at College Green Dublin by Volunteers from the 3rd Battalion Dublin Brigade.

1922 – About 500 Anti-Treaty IRA men attack Killorglin, County Kerry, led by Seán Hyde. However, they fail to dislodge a pro-treaty garrison of 60 men from Clare who hold the barracks in the town. British Intelligence reports that 23 Republicans are killed in the action and 30 wounded. Anti-Treaty soldier David Robinson admits to 2 killed, 15 wounded and 14 captured. The republicans disperse after 24 hours of fighting, when Free State troops arrive from Tralee.

1922 - Anti-Treaty fighter Michael Neville, is taken from work in Dublin and found shot dead at Killester Cemetery by Pro-Treaty forces

In August 1922, during the height of the Irish Civil War, two senior Fianna Eireann officers, Sean Cole, Commandant of the 2nd Battalion (Dublin Brigade) and Alfred Colley, Commandant of the 1st Battalion (Dublin Brigade) were arrested by intelligence members of the National Army at Newcomen Bridge on the North Strand and taken to Yellow Road, Whitehall in North Dublin and shot dead. It was believed to be an act of reprisal for the shooting of Michael Collins, which took place a number of days before.

1922 - Republican Francis Lawlor is abducted by Free State forces in Dublin, killed and his body dumped at Orwell Road, Rathgar.

 Anti-Treaty IRA under  Padraig Quinn attack Dundalk  and dynamite  the prison wall and in fifteen minutes the well-timed operation results in the freeing of Republican prisoners, including Frank Aiken. In an ambush at nearby Castletown Cross, two Free State soldiers are wounded, one fatally

 One National Army soldier is killed and several soldiers and three civilians are injured in a gun and grenade attack by Republicans on Free State troops at noon on Eden Quay, central Dublin.

Two Free State soldiers are killed in two separate ambushes in Kerry.

 The Anti-Treaty IRA mounts three attacks in Dublin. In Drumcondra, 10 civilians are wounded by a grenade thrown at an Army lorry. On Eden Quay, one soldier is killed and three wounded along with four civilians wounded in a gun and grenade attack. On Merchant's Quay, a civilian is killed in another grenade attack.

1922 - In Belfast, four people were shot dead (three civilians and one IRA volunteer).

1923 - Five Free State soldiers, including three officers are killed by a booby trap mine while clearing a road in Knocknagoshel, County Kerry. Another soldier is badly wounded. National Army commander Paddy Daly issues a memorandum that Republican prisoners are to be used to clear mined roads from now on.

1920 - British government sanctioned "official reprisals". They were begun with the burning of seven houses in Midleton, Co Cork in reprisal for IRA ambush earlier in the day.

1922 - Two Anti-Treaty men are executed by the Free State in Kilkenny.

1922 - A Free State foot patrol is ambushed by an IRA column near Castlegregory, County Kerry. Two soldiers are killed and two wounded. Their post in the village is burned. The National Army in Tralee threaten to execute four Republican prisoners in reprisal but after a legal appeal their sentence is commuted to penal servitude.

1922 - There is a bomb planted at CID headquarters at Oriel House, Dublin. One Free State soldier is killed and two wounded in the explosion. Two civilians are also wounded


1922 - Two National Army soldiers are killed and three wounded in an ambush at Redmondstown, County Kilkenny on the road between Clonmel and Kilkenny. Free State commandant Frank Thornton is also badly wounded in the incident. Three other National Army officers had been captured by the IRA in the same spot the previous night.

 A Free State soldier is killed in an ambush on a convoy near Tralee

 Anti-Treaty IRA attack Bantry in western County Cork for several hours. They withdraw after losing four officers and more men killed. Four National Army soldiers are also killed and two wounded in the attack.

1921 - Limerick Mayor George Clancy is shot and killed in his home by disguised members of the Black and Tans.


1922 - In Belfast, four people were shot dead (three civilians and one IRA volunteer).

1922 - In Belfast, three people were shot dead.

1923 - An anti-Treaty prisoner, Gleeson is shot dead after being taken prisoner by Free State troops near Cloughjordan, Tipperary.

1923 - Nine Republican prisoners are taken from Ballymullen Barracks in Tralee to Ballyseedy Cross, ostensibly to clear a mined road. They are then tied together around the landmine, which is then detonated by National army troops at Ballyseedy, Co Kerry.

1923 - Four more Anti-Treaty IRA prisoners are killed in Kerry by National Army troops from Dublin. They are, as at Ballyseedy the day before, blown up by a mine, ostensibly while clearing a mined road, at Countess Bridge in Killarney. The dead are from IRA Kerry 2 Brigade. One man, Tadhg Coffey, escapes the massacre

 In north Cork, near Millstreet, two lorries of Free State troops are ambushed by IRA Cork 1 Brigade members. Two Anti-Treaty fighters are killed and two wounded. Five Free State troops are wounded.1922 - Republicans attack Macroom, County Cork with men and a captured armoured car. They withdraw after a seven-hour fire fight.

 Republicans attack National Army troops while they are drilling in front of the City Club in Cork city. They drive up in a lorry and open machine-gun fire on the Free State troops, killing two and injuring six.

 Two National Army soldiers are killed in an ambush at Watergrass Hill, County Cork.

 There are also attacks by Anti-Treaty fighters on Free State troops in Dublin city centre and Tallaght and Rathfarnham in County Dublin. In the city centre ambush, one civilian is killed, and a Free State soldier and a civilian are wounded. Two Free State soldiers are wounded in the attack in Rathfranham and the RIC barracks there is destroyed.

 Three CID police are shot in an ambush at Dean Grange, Dublin, one later dies.

 Anti-Treaty IRA members Leo Murray and Rodney Murphy, Deans Grange are shot in their beds at lodge house of Newpark Lodge, Stillorgan, Dublin. Another, John Joe Stephens, Bellek, Fermanagh is taken from his lodgings at 7 Gardiner Place and shot at Naas Road, Dublin, the following day. National Army or CID personnel are assumed to be responsible.                                                            1920 – IRA burned over 300 abandoned RIC barracks in rural areas and almost 100 income tax offices. Abbott says that approximately 150 barracks were destroyed on the night of 5/6 April.

1920 – Two RIC men were killed in an ambush by East Mayo and South Sligo IRA brigades, at Ratra near Frenchpark, Co Roscommon. One volunteer died in the action; Black and Tans mutilated his body and dragged it through the streets of Ballaghaderreen. 

1920 – Sinn Féin County Councilor John Lynch of Kilmallock, Limerick was assassinated by British agents at the Exchange Hotel Dublin.

1922 – Anti-Treaty fighter Michael Neville, is taken from work in Dublin and found shot dead at Killester Cemetery by Pro-Treaty forces.

1922 – Two Free State soldiers are killed in two separate ambushes in Kerry.

1922 – The Anti-Treaty IRA mounts three attacks in Dublin. In Drumcondra, 10 civilians are wounded by a grenade thrown at an Army lorry. On Eden Quay, one soldier is killed and three wounded along with four civilians wounded in a gun and grenade attack. On Merchant’s Quay, a civilian is killed in another grenade attack.

1921 – A Black and Tan is wounded in an ambush at Bonniconlon, Co Mayo.

1921 – The South Leitrim Brigade of the IRA hold up the Cavan and Leitrim Railway and intercept the Mail Car. A letter implicates a local farmer, John Harrison (County Leitrim) as an informer and he is later executed.

1921 – Pvt of 8th Royal Marine Battalion RMLI was kidnapped and killed.

1922 – The IRA launched a series of attacks across Northern Ireland. The RIC barracks at Martinstown, Ballycastle and Cushendall in Co Antrim, were attacked, but none were taken. IRA units in Belfast targeted commercial buildings and destroyed 80-90 buildings over the next two months.

1922 – IRA Man shot dead two RIC constables in Co Tipperary.

1923 – Anti-Treaty IRA members Christy Breslin and Joseph Kiernan, are arrested by Free State forces at Georges Street, Dublin and killed at Cabra. Another, James Tierney, is killed later.

1923 – The bodies of two National Army Intelligence officers who were abducted while in plainclothes and unarmed near Barne, Tipperary on January 23 and killed by Anti-Treaty forces are discovered. Their bodies had been dumped in nearby cemetery.

1923 – Anti-Treaty Volunteer Jerome Lyons is shot dead whilst under interrogation in Kickham Barracks, Clonmel.

 Republicans attack and take Kenmare in County Kerry. A total of 84 Anti-Treaty fighters take over the town and shoot dead local pro-treaty officer Tom "Scarteen" O'Connor" and his brother after taking them prisoner. They take 120 National Army troops in the town prisoner, but later release them. They capture 110 rifles and 20,000 rounds of ammunition. This action allowed the Kerry Anti-Treaty units to pursue a fairly effective guerrilla campaign for the remainder of the war.

 A British intelligence report states that the Free State intelligence unit, the Crime Investigation Department or CID has, "murdered a number of prominent republicans" in Dublin.

Anti-Treaty fighters attack the barracks at Carrickmacross. One Free State soldier is killed and two wounded in the firing. A civilian is also killed in the crossfire

A Free State column travelling from Macroom, Cork, towards Kerry, is attacked with a mine on a bridge at Carrigphooka, west Cork. National Army commandant Tom Keogh and eight other soldiers are killed in the blast. A Republican prisoner is shot dead in reprisal by Dublin Guards.

 Republicans under Michael Kilroy take Ballina, County Mayo, in a surprise attack while the National Army troops there are at a Mass service for a comrade killed in the fighting. Kilroy's men capture 100 rifles, 20,000 rounds of ammunition . Two civilians are shot dead in the fight between the combatants. The Republicans leave the town when Free State reinforcements arrive. The Republican's armoured car breaks down in the retreat and has to be abandoned.

  •  Charlie Dalton, a National Army intelligence officer, arrests three boys, neighbours of his, Edwin Hughes, aged 17, Brendan Holihan aged 17, and Joe Rogers, aged 16, putting up Republican posters in Drumcondra, Dublin. The next morning they are found shot dead in a ditch in the quarries, Clondalkin, "riddled with bullets" according to the inquest doctor.

 CID Headquarters (Oriel House in Dublin) is stormed and a CID officer is shot dead by Anti-Treaty IRA. There is a fire fight on Mount street bridge as the IRA party makes its getaway. Republican fighter Patrick Mannion is shot in the head by Free State troops as he lies wounded

1921 – During rioting in Belfast, a grenade was thrown at a loyalist mob advancing towards a nationalist area. Two were killed and over twenty injured

Michael Moran Commander of the Tuam County Galway Battalion of the IRA was shot dead on the 24th of November 1920..

1922 – The Free State evacuates its garrison at Newport, Co Mayo due to the intense guerrilla activity in the area.

1920 – A newly promoted Head Constable was shot and killed by IRA volunteers in Balbriggan, in north Co Dublin, near the training camp for British police recruits at Gormanston. Later that night, police rioted and attacked Balbriggan, killing two men, Seamus Lawless and Sean Gibbons looting and burning four public houses, destroying a hosiery factory, and damaging or destroying forty-nine homes. This incident known as the Sack of Balbriggan caused a sensation in Britain, receiving headlines from the British press, and making reprisals an important topic for debate in Parliament.

November 23 1920: Four IRA men (P O'Donoghue, P Trahey, James Mehigan & Stephen Dorman) from 2nd Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade are killed.

1920 - Three IRA men (Lt. Michael Glavey, Vol Pat Glynn, Vol Michael Keane) killed by Crown forces ambush in Ballinlough, County Roscommon.

September 01, 1920
Ambush by 6th Battalion, Cork No. 1 Brigade on British forces at Inniscarra. British got away and there were no casualties on either side.

Five RIC men on bicycles were attacked at Rathmacross, Co. Roscommon (between Ballaghdereen and Frenchpark) resulting in the deaths of two policemen (Constables Edward Murphy and Martin McCarthy) and one IRA man (Tom McDonagh). The IRA were led by Jim Hunt and Marren.

1921 - During rioting in Belfast, a grenade was thrown at a loyalist mob advancing towards a nationalist area. Two were killed and over twenty injured.

1922 - The Free State evacuates its garrison at Newport, County Mayo due to the intense guerrilla activity in the area.

 Republicans under Michael Kilroy ambush a Free State convoy near Belderg, County Mayo, killing 4 National Army soldiers and taking 16 prisoners. Another ambush in the Ox Mountains kills up to 15 National Army soldiers, including Brigadier Joe Ring. Republican losses are reported in the press as 10 killed and more wounded, 

18 April  1923– Six Anti-Treaty fighters are executed in Tuam County Galway

 Drumshambo barracks in County Leitrim is seized by Republicans after successful ambush of National Army troops.

 A skirmish takes place at Donoughmore, County Cork. Two Anti-Treaty IRA men are killed.

1922 - An anti-Treaty IRA officer Sean O'Donoghue is shot dead by Free State troops in Cork city, who also arrest 39 men.

 Press reports say that a total of six Anti-Treaty and six pro-treaty troops are killed in an ambushes at Blarney.

 Republican fighters open fire on Free State troops landing by sea at CourtmacSherry in Cork. Three Anti-Treaty fighters and one Free State soldier are killed.

In Killarney, Free State troops break into the houses of six women republicans and paint their bodies green.

 Michael Kilroy's Anti-Treaty IRA men attack Newport, County Mayo, but fail to take it and withdraw after a day of fighting.

 The IRA mounts three gun and grenade attacks in Dublin city, at Curzon Street, Capel Street and Drumcondra. Two Free Stare troops are wounded along with 5 civilians. One Civilian is killed ,   CID Headquarters – Oriel House in Dublin – is stormed and a CID officer is shot dead by Anti-Treaty IRA. There is a  fight on Mount street bridge as the IRA party makes its getaway. Republican fighter Patrick Mannion is shot in the head by Free State troops as he lies wounded.

Three National Army troops are killed in an ambush near Nenagh, Tipperary ,

1917 - Thomas Ashe dies in the Mater Hospital in Dublin from the combined effects of a hunger strike and forced feeding at Mountjoy Jail. The following famous and much repeated Sean O’Casey quote "You cannot put a rope around the neck of an idea... you cannot confine it in the strongest prison cell that your slaves could ever build" was made on the subject of the death of Thomas Ashe.

1923 - Three men are executed by the Free State in Birr, County Offaly for armed robbery. Although not actually IRA members, having been denied entry on the grounds that they were too young, the three had Republican connections and claimed as 'Republican soldiers' in an Anti-Treaty communique.

1923 – An anti-Treaty land mine outside Terenure College, Dublin destroys a National Army tender, badly injuring three Free State soldiers and two civilians                                                                         1920 - Commandant Seamus (Jim) O'Brien, IRA Brigade Commander, shot dead by RIC outside his shop in Rathdrum, Co Wicklow.

1921 - James Murphy died in Mater Hospital, Dublin. Before the end, he declared that he and Kennedy were shot by their Auxiliary captors. A court of inquiry was held, and Captain W L King, commanding officer of F Company ADRIC, was arrested for the killings.

1921 - IRA fighters from the 3rd Cork Brigade made an attack on a troop train at Drishabeg, near Millstreet, Co Cork. One British soldier was killed, five were wounded and fifteen were captured but later released. The IRA also seized arms and ammunition.

1922 - IRA volunteers stopped a group of USC constables on a train in Clones, Co Monaghan (a short distance into Southern territory). A gunfight began in which one IRA officer and four USC were killed. The remaining USC constables were captured.

1923 - The Father of Government minister Kevin O'Higgins is shot dead by Republicans at the family home in Stradbally County Laois. The house is also burnt down. O'Higgins had taken a hard line against the anti-Treaty rebels including sanctioning the execution of Rory O’Connor, the best man at his wedding. Higgins himself would be assassinated by the IRA in 1927

 Fall of Limerick. Free State forces capture the Ordnance Barracks and Castle Barracks in Limerick. The Republicans burn the remaining two barracks they are holding and retreat southwards. Fighting in Limerick has cost the lives of six Free State soldiers and 12 civilians, with a further 87 wounded. The press reports about thirty Anti-Treaty IRA men killed but a recent study puts their fatalities at just five

1923 – Athlone Waterworks is badly damaged by a Republican bomb.

1923 - A civilian carter, James Finlay is shot dead by anti-Treaty fighters near Tullamore, Co Offaly                                                     1920 - IRA unit commanded by Ernie O'Malley and Eoin O'Duffy captured an RIC barracks at Ballytrain, Co Monaghan.

Michael Moran Commander of the Tuam County Galway Battalion of the IRA was shot dead on the 24th of November 1920


November 13 1920:Eight RIC were traveling in a lorry from Galbally to Bansha when they are ambushed at Inches Cross (or Lisnagaul) in the Glen of Aherlow by the No. 1 Flying Column of the 3rd Tipperary Brigade under Dinny Lacey. Four policemen are killed

1920 – Auxiliaries Section Leader Lt L. Mitchell and Tem. Cadet Lt. B.V.A. Agnew attached to Company “C” A.D.R.I.C at Macroom coming back from a 24 hour pass to Cork City are captured at Emmet Place by IRA court-martialled and executed.

1920 - IRA unit commanded by Diarmuid Hurley captured an RIC barracks at Castlemartyr, Co Cork.

1921 - Three IRA prisoners Ernie O’Malley, Frank Teeling and Simon Donnelly escape from Kilmainham Gaol in Dublin. They had been arrested for involvement in the Bloody Sunday killings of the infamous Cairo gang. O’Malley was a particularly interesting character who went on to fight on the Anti-treaty side during the Civil War. He was captured and imprisoned by Irish government forces in 1922 and spent almost two years in jail. He had strong literary skills. His most famous work is a well received memoir about the Irish War of Independence titled On Another Man’s Wound which he wrote while traveling in Mexico and Peru.

1921 - Two IRA Volunteers, the Coffey brothers, were assassinated in their beds by unknown gunmen in Enniskeane, Cork. Republicans blame an Auxiliary or Black and Tan unit but suspicion also falls on a local loyalist organisation known as the Loyalist Action Group.             1921 - Three British soldiers (privates) of the Oxford Regiment were found by IRA men, unarmed and wearing civilian clothes near Feakle in Clare. The soldiers said they were deserters but the IRA suspected they were spies, shot them and dumped their bodies near Woodford.                                                                                         1922 – Seán Mac Eoin and 400 Free State troops re-take Collooney, after an artillery bombardment and protracted fire-fight, taking 74 Republican prisoners. Only one man is killed, however, an Anti-Treaty IRA fighter

1923 - Anti-Treaty officer Thomas O'Sullivan, head of the local IRA battalion, is shot dead by Free State troops near Dingle.

Shots are exchanged between Republicans and Free State troops at the cemetery in Dundalk at the interment of the bodies of six Anti-Treaty fighters executed in January 1923. Several people are hit and one man dies of his wounds, Free State troops take a republican prisoner, Daniel Murphy, to Knocknagoshel, where 5 National Army troops had been killed on 6 March and shoot him dead. Three Anti-Treaty prisoners are executed in Tralee. A National Army officer, Peter McNicholas, is killed in an ambush near Kiltimagh, Mayo. A Free State Lieutenant, Beehan, is shot dead in an ambush near Castleisland, Kerry, while escorting two Civic Guards    






On November 16, the Board of Works streamer, The Shannon, sailed into Williamstown Harbour. No particular notice was taken of it, as the harbour was due for dredging. However, there was a force of Auxiliaries hidden below deck and they came ashore and surrounded Williamstown House.

They found three men in hiding in Williamstown House. They were Alfie Rogers and Brud McMahon from Scariff and Martin Gildea from Galway. Micheal Egan from Whitegate was caretaker at Williamstown House and he was also captured. Two others, John and Michael Conway were captured en route and all six were taken by boat to Killaloe. The boat landed at the jetty of the Lakeside Hotel. After questioning in the hotel the Conway brothers were released. The other four were taken to the bridge at Killaloe around midnight where they were shot.

In September 1920 two policemen were shot in Balbriggan, during an act of reprisal a group of black and tans arrived in the town and proceeded to set fire to buildings,many homes were burnt to the ground and a local English owned factory which employed many of the locals was also set alight.
When 'The Tans' had left the bodies of 2 local men were found,Seamus Lawless and Sean Gibbons bodies were so badly mutilated it wasn't known if they had been beaten or bayoneted...the photo shows their funeral as it passes the local R.I.C Barracks, the officers stood to attention as it passed.

 1920 – The IRA executes English Army officer Colonel Gerald Bryce Ferguson Smyth in Cork. While all British Army personnel were deemed legitimate targets, Smyth’s fate was sealed when he spoke in quite brutal fashion about how Irish citizens were to be treated. At a meeting in Listowel on 19 June, Smyth reportedly told RIC officers: “Police and military will patrol the country roads at least five nights a week. They are not to confine themselves to the main roads but make across the country, lie in ambush, take cover behind fences near roads, and when civilians are seen approaching shout: ‘Hands up!’ Should the order be not obeyed, shoot, and shoot with effect. If the persons approaching carry their hands in their pockets or are in any way suspicious looking, shoot them down. You may make mistakes occasionally and innocent persons may be shot, but that cannot be helped and you are bound to get the right persons sometimes. The more you shoot the better I will like you; and I assure you that no policeman will get into trouble for shooting any man and I will guarantee that your names will not be given at the inquest.” See Tom Barry YouTube video: http://youtu.be/swBcgBwCGYU

1922 – Free State general Eoin O’Duffy arrives in Limerick with 1,500 National Army troops, four armoured cars and one 18-pounder field gun.

1922 – Two Anti-Treaty fighters are killed in two separate ambushes in County Kildare. by free state soldiers 

1919 – The first assassination authorised by Michael Collins – Detective Sergeant the Dog Smith was shot by The Squad.

1920 – The IRA East Limerick column, including Waterford IRA officer George Lennon, ambushed a British Army cycling patrol of 6 men at Tankardstown on the Bruree to Kilmallock road. One soldier was killed.

1920 – IRA man Paddy Daly shot and killed Frank Brooke, the director of Great Southern and Eastern Railway in his office in Dublin. Brooke was a member of the British military’s Advisory Council.

1920 – Six RIC men were killed by the IRA in an ambush at the Rineen Ambush, Co Clare. Resident Magistrate Lendrum was shot during an attempt to commandeer his car at a level crossing near Doonbeg, County Clare, by the IRA. His body was concealed in a lake, and returned to his family on their request. Following this, and the ambush earlier in the day, the Black and Tans took reprisals, killing six civilians in Milltown Malbay, Lahinch and Ennistymon, and burned twenty-six buildings, including the town halls in Lahinch and Ennistymon.

John Connolly was a Lieutenant in the Bandon Battalion of the local IRA. Lieut. John Connolly was arrested at his cousins farm house, in Fitzgerald’s of Maulnaskimlehane , on the 23rd September 1920 by soldiers from the Essex Regiment in a round up of IRA Suspects in Kilbrittain. Lieut. Connolly was taken into the barracks at Allen Square, where he was brutally tortured and interrogated for a full week. On the 1st of October he was forcefully taken to the Bandon Park and executed without trial or charge. A cross still marks the spot in the Park where his mutilated body was found. Lieut. John Connolly is buried in Kilbrogan graveyard, Bandon, Co. Cork.

1922 – One National Army soldier is killed and several soldiers and three civilians are injured in a gun and grenade attack by Republicans on Free State troops at noon on Eden Quay, central Dublin.

1921 – 15-18: There was further riots in Belfast and two Protestants were killed by a sniper.

1922 – Second consecutive night of sniping attacks in Dublin. Anti-Treaty fighters attempt to take over the Telephone exchange and Kingsbridge Railway Station in Dublin. They also attack the Wellington and Portobello military barracks. The attacks were driven off by Free State troops after several hours of firing.

1922 – In Dundalk, the Anti-Treaty IRA made several attacks on Free State troops and took over the power station, cutting off the town’s electricity supply. One National Army soldier is killed by a hand grenade in the clashes.

1922 – The Free State post at Athboy, Co Meath is attacked. One soldier is killed.

1922 – The Free State’s Lord Chief Justice rules that the country is in a state of war and Habeas Corpus no longer applies. He rejects an application to free two of the 5,000 prisoners taken by National forces since the outbreak of the civil war.

1922 – Free State troops take Bruree, County Limerick. The Dublin Guard, supported by artillery, attacks the village for five hours before the Anti-Treaty IRA retreats. At least 13 Free State soldiers and nine Anti-Treaty fighters are killed in the action and more are wounded.

1922 – Two Free State soldiers are killed in a skirmish in Mayo.

1922 – Free State troops raid on a public house owned by Mrs Maria Dowling, Blackmill Street, Kilkenny. Samuel Oakes aged 17 was fatally wounded when shot by the military. Eleven young men were arrested at the scene.

1922 – A Free State column is ambushed outside Kilkelly, Co Mayo by Anti-Treaty fighters. The Free State troops have five wounded and claim to have killed seven irregulars.

1922 – A skirmish takes place in Mitchelstown, Cork. One Anti-Treaty officer is killed and 12 of his men are captured.

1922 – A Free State convoy of 100 troops is ambushed between Tralee and Killorglin, Co Kerry. One officer is killed. The National Army troops are caught in several more ambushes along their line of retreat, taking more casualties.

1922 – Anti-Treaty fighters ambush Free State troops at Glasson, near Athlone. National Army officer Lieutenant McCormack is killed and several more soldiers are wounded.

1922 – Fianna Éireann members Seán Cole and Alf Colley and Anti-Treaty IRA member Bernard Daly, are abducted and killed in Dublin by the Criminal Investigation Department CID, police unit based in Oriel House allegedly in revenge for Michael Collins killing, although possibly in retaliation for the death of a CID man the previous day.


1922 – Two National Army soldiers are killed in an ambush on the road between Nenagh and Limerick.

1922 – A civilian is killed in an exchange of fire at Whitefriars, Dublin city.

1921 – A house in Belfast was bombed by loyalists. Over the next two days, two Protestants are killed by republican snipers.

1922 – Three National Army soldiers are killed in ambush near Nenagh, County Tipperary, when a mine is exploded under their lorry and they are fired on by Anti-Treaty fighters. Several more men are injured in the shooting. Another two are killed in a separate mine attack near Bushfield, Tipperary.

1922 – Anti-Treaty IRA units mount an ambush of Free State troops at Glenflesk, near Killarney, County Kerry. The Free State troops bring up an 18 pounder artillery piece and eventually drive off their attackers. Press reports say that the bodies of 20 Anti-Treaty fighters are found at the scene.

1922 – A soldier is shot dead in an ambush near Macroom, Cork.

1922 – Two Anti-Treaty IRA men are captured in Tralee, Kerry and shot by Free State troops. One of them, James Healy, survives and escapes.

1922 – Free State troops assault an Anti-Treaty IRA position at Convent hill, near Newport, Co Mayo. They are repulsed with seven men wounded

1922 – The Anti-Treaty IRA mounts gun and grenade attacks on National Army soldiers at Stephen’s Green, Dublin. In Cork, there is an exchange of fire between Free State troops and Anti-Treaty snipers. One Republican is killed by machine gun fire.

1922 – Republicans blow up the railway bridge over the river Blackwater at Mallow, Co Cork, disabling the rail line between Cork and Dublin.

1922 - A Free State soldier is shot dead while trying to clear a blocked road at Duagh, Co Kerry. Another is killed the following day at Lawlor's Cross, Co Kerry.

1922 – Four civilians are killed in Tubbercurry, three are shot dead by anti-Treaty fighters and one shot by Free State troops at a roadblock.

1922 – Two British merchant sailors are shot dead by National Army troop in Youghal, Cork when they failed to stop at a checkpoint.

1922 - National Army troops raid and capture a bomb making factory at Gardiner Street, Dublin. A Free State captain, Nicholas Tobin, brother of Liam Tobin is accidentally shot dead by his own troops.

1922 – Two Republicans are taken from a car in Drumcondra in Dublin and shot dead. Their bodies are left on the street. A British soldier on the scene reported that the car contained three men in “Provisional Government uniform” and three more in trench coats – presumed to be from the CID intelligence unit.

1922 – Three unarmed Free State soldiers are shot at Glasson, near Athlone. One is killed.

1922 – Republicans attack Macroom, Co Cork with men and a captured armoured car. They withdraw after a seven-hour battle.

1922 – Republicans attack National Army troops while they are drilling in front of the City Club in Cork city. They drive up in a lorry and open machine-gun fire on the Free State troops, killing two and injuring six.

1922 – Two National Army soldiers are killed in an ambush at Watergrass Hill, Co Cork.

1922 – There are also attacks by Anti-Treaty fighters on Free State troops in Dublin city centre and Tallaght and Rathfarnham in Co Dublin. In the city centre ambush, one civilian is killed, and a Free State soldier and a civilian are wounded. Two Free State soldiers are wounded in the attack in Rathfranham and the RIC barracks there is destroyed.

1922 – Three CID police are shot in an ambush at Dean Grange, Dublin, one later dies.

1920 - IRA 3rd Cork Brigade personnel attacked a lorry carrying British troops from the Essex Regiment at the Toureen Ambush, on the road between Bandon and Cork. Two soldiers were killed, including a Lieutenant W.A. Dixon and another four wounded, one of them mortally. Ten more were captured, disarmed and then released.

1922 - Two National Army soldiers are killed at Woodhouse, Co Waterford when their lorry is ambushed; the driver is also wounded. Private Larry Phelan of Kilmacthomas, Waterford was shot dead. Private Patrick Foley of Waterford died from his wounds.

1922 - Republican fighter Bertie Murphy is shot dead in Killarney, Co Kerry, by National Army troops in reprisal for ambushes in the area

1922 – A secret meeting takes place between Richard Mulcahy and Éamon de Valera, political leader of the Republicans, to try to arrange a truce. However, according to de Valera, they, “couldn’t find a basis” of agreement.

1922 – A large party of Republican fighters attack Carrickmacross barracks, Monaghan. The attack is unsuccessful but one Free State soldier is killed.

1920 – IRA members ambushed of a lorry full of British soldiers on Church St Dublin. Three soldiers were killed, the first in the city since the Easter Rising of 1916. IRA man Kevin Barry was arrested at the scene and charged with murder.

1922 – Six National Army soldiers are killed in a prolonged engagement with Republican fighters near Ballina, Co Mayo.

1922 – The Free State barracks in Drumshambo, Leitrim is attacked and one soldier is killed.

1922 – A national Army soldier is accidentally killed cleaning his rifle in Co Cork and a civilian girl is killed in Kildare by bomb she found in an outhouse.


1922 – A Free State soldier is assassinated at Barrack Street, Cork, while visiting his family.

1922 – There are gun attack on Free State posts in Waterford City. One civilian, Kate Walsh is killed. Separately two bodies of anti-Treaty fighters, buried clandestinely after a previous action are dug up in Waterford.

1922 – IRA fighters ambush National Army troops in Glenacone, Co Limerick, but are worsted in the ensuing action, One IRA officer, D Finich of Cork 2 Brigade is killed and 12 prisoners are taken. Two National Army soldiers are wounded

1922 – Anti-Treaty IRA members Leo Murray and Rodney Murphy, Deans Grange are shot in their beds at lodge house of Newpark Lodge, Stillorgan, Dublin. Another, John Joe Stephens, Bellek, Fermanagh is taken from his lodgings at 7 Gardiner Place and shot at Naas Road, Dublin, the following day. National Army or CID personnel are assumed to be responsible.

1922 – National Army officer Tony Lawlor shoots dead republican prisoner, Patrick Mulrennan during a riot in the prison in Athlone.

1922 – Anti-Treaty fighters in Tullycrine, County Clare ambush a National Army column. A number of Free State troops and one Anti-Treaty IRA man are killed in the fight.

1922 – A number of gun and grenade attacks are carried out by Republican fighters in Dublin. Three people are wounded. In Limerick, Republicans raid the hospital and free six of their prisoners who were being treated there.

1922 - One Anti-Treaty fighter is killed in action at White’s Cross, Cork.


1922 – Republicans attack the National Army barracks at Glanmire, Co Cork. One civilian is wounded in the crossfire.

1922 – A prisoner, Michael Buckley, is shot dead in Limerick Prison by National Army troops for ‘signalling to political prisoners’


 1921 – Just three days after a truce is implemented, Éamon de Valera, President of Dáil Éireann meets with British Prime Minister David Lloyd George in London. Francis Stevenson, Private Secretary to Lloyd George recalled: “I have never seen David so excited as he was before de Valera arrived, at 4.30. He kept walking in and out of my room… As I told him afterwards, he was bringing up all his guns! He had a big map of the British Empire hung up on the wall in the Cabinet room, with its great blotches of red all over it. This was to impress de Valera with the greatness of the British Empire and to get him to recognise it, and the King.” Dev apparently was not impressed. Six days later, Britain made its first formal proposal. The main negotiations would take place in December culminating with the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December.

.

December 15 1920: .The Murder of Canon Magner and Tadgh Crowley

The British Auxiliary forces responsible for the burning of Cork city, those of 'K' company, were moved to Dunmanway, in the west of the county, just days after their rampage of destruction. Under Colonel Latimer, they established their barracks at the workhouse in the town. This was just two weeks after the Kilmichael ambush, where a company of their colleagues were wiped out by Tom Barry's West Cork Flying Column.

The auxiliaries and also black and tans (who were based in the local RIC barracks) declared their intention of seeking revenge for the defeat at Kilmichael. At 11.30 on the morning of December 15th., 1920 a group of more than twenty Auxiliaries came into contact with Canon Thomas Magner, an elderly man in poor health, who was walking along the main road about a mile on the Cork side of the town. With him was one of his parishioners, twenty three years old Tadgh Crowley. As the commanding officer and the rest of the group looked on, an auxiliary named Hart drew his gun and shot the two men in cold blood. Their bodies were pushed into a drain at the side of the road

On the 2nd of May 1923 27 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Volunteers escaped from the County Jail in Wexford. One of the escapees was Michael (Mick) Redford. He was still on the run on the 22nd of June when he was shot. Accounts of the shooting vary, the Anti-Treaty Republican side state Redford was unarmed and although shot and mortally wounded on the evening of the 22nd he was left to die and his body not recovered until the next day. He was shot twice at The Cotts, Tacusmshane, County Wexford.

 On March 7, 1921, Limerick Mayor George Clancy was shot and killed in his home. Clancy came from a family with a strong republican tradition. In college, he joined the Gaelic League, forming a branch at University College Dublin and recruiting other students to join

 The Volunteers take the newly imported rifles away from Howth pier.

 Thomas Dwyer, aged 21 years, of Bouladuff Co Tipperary was shot dead by members of the R.I.C., the Black & Tans,

Drumbo Castle 1923
The Remains of Drumboe Castle today
First daylight raid by the Donegal Brigade IRA in the war of independence carried out in Co Tyrone The Volunteers who took part in the first daylight arms raid at Drumquin were; Sam O’Flaherty, John McGroarty, Michael Doherty, James Curran, Henry McGowan, Patrick McGlinchey, Dr. J.P. McGinley, Jim Dawson, Anthony Dawson, Eamon Gallagher, Hugh McGraughan, Hugh Sweeney, William McLaughlin, Patrick McMonagle, James McMonagle, Hugh McGrath, John McLaughlin, Edward McBrearty, J.J. Kelly, James McCarron, John Flaherty, Jim Hannigan, John Byrne, Edward Thomas Coyle and Michael Bogan.
THE DRUMBOE MARTYRS

On the 14th March 1923, on the orders of the Free state Government, four men were shot by firing squad at Drumboe Castle 
(near Stranorlar) ; this brought the number of executions to 77.   The four men were:
Commandant-General Charlie Daly (26) Kerry;  Brigadier-Commandant Sean Larkin (26) Derry.  Lieutenant Timothy O''Sullivan, Kerry, 
Lieutenant Daniel Enright (23) Kerry. 

On 2nd November 1922 an eight man column was captured at  Meenabul, Dunlewey. They were:  Charlie Daly, Sean Larkin,
Daniel Enright,Timothy O'Sullivan, James Lane, James Donaghy, Frank Ward,and  Daniel Coyle.  The eight men were tried by
a military court, were charged with possession of rifles, revolvers, ammunition and bombs; all eight were convicted.

John Higgins ( Father of President Michael D Higgins ) was active in the IRA during War of Independence and afterwards in the Civil War on the anti-Treaty side.
The Higgins were pitted against each other as Michael D’s dad John and aunt Kitty were anti-Treaty, while uncles Peter and Michael were pro-Treaty. Documents show John’s military pension application was initially turned down.

It was only after political intervention from people he knew that he was finally granted it in 1956 for his service with the IRA during the 1920-1923 period.

In testimony he gave in 1936, Co Clare native John — who married Cork woman Alice Canty — said he blocked roads and raided garages and post offices during the War of Independence.

He was part of a group which attacked Ballylanders barracks in Limerick in May 1920 and carried out a mail train heist in Charleville, Co Cork, the following month.

He burned down houses in Charleville in July 1921, moved arms and ammo, slashed telephone wires and carried dispatches.

On December 21 1919 20 to 30 IRA men lead by Peadar Clancy entered the building of the Irish Independent newspaper and smashed their printing machinery.

The Independent's criticism in 1919 was of the attempted assassination of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and Supreme Commander of the British Army in Ireland, Lord John French, as he returned to the Phoenix Park from Ashtown train station. During the attempted ambush, 21-year-old IRA Volunteer Martin Savage was killed

“In January, 1920, Drumlish R.I.C. Barracks was attacked. Our Battalion took part in this attack. The job allotted to us was to block the roads leading from Longford town to Drumlish and to cut the telephone and telegraph wires. Those demolitions were carried out successfully. The Barracks was not captured. After this, the R.I.C. evacuated Drumlish and also all the small outlying barracks held by them and concentrated their force in larger garrisons. On Easter Saturday night of 1920, all the evacuated stations were burned by the I.R.A. This operation took place throughout the whole country, and acted as an insight to us of the extent of the I.R.A. organisation” – Michael Murphy (IRA Commandant).

Drumcondra Ambush 21 Jan 1921

On Friday, January 21, 8 men from the 1st Battalion IRA, hoped to attack one of the RIC patrols which used the road to drive to and from their base at Gormanstown, near Drogheda. 8 men in the ASU involved in the action at Drumcondra, two men, Burke and Dunne, escaped the scene. The five remaining, Frank Flood, Thomas Bryan, Bernard Ryan, Patrick Doyle and Dermot O'Sullivan were captured. And Magee died of his wounds. The caprives were tried by Court-martial. The lasted two days; all of the accused were convicted of High Treason. On 14 March 1921, all of the men, save Dermot O'Sullivan, were hanged at Mountjoy Prison. Citing his age of only 17 years, the British commuted O’Sullivan’s sentence to life in prison. He was released from Portland Gaol at the end of August 1921.

22 January 1921 aged 24. Michael Francis 'Mick' Magee, died as a result of wounds
14 March 1921, aged 29 Patrick Doyle: Executed in Mountjoy Prison.
14 March 1921, aged 19 Francis X Flood..Executed in Mountjoy Prison
14 March 1921, aged 24. Thomas Bryan. Executed at Mountjoy Prison
14 March 1921 aged 21. Bernard 'Bertie' Ryan executed at Mountjoy Prison

Enniscorthy in County Wexford was the only town or city outside Dublin to be seized by the Irish Volunteers in the course of the Easter Rising. The Volunteers had been established in the town in 1913, and since the split prompted by John Redmond's support for the British war effort, there had been a small but vigorous constituency for separatist politics in the town under the leadership of figures such as Peter Paul Galligan. The Irish Volunteers trained in the town, and attempted to make and obtain weapons in the months prior to the Rising.

Enniscorthy was important as the main train line from Dublin to Wexford passed through the town, which could be used to move British reinforcements to Dublin should they land in Rosslare. After some confusion as to what the Irish Volunteers in the town should be doing on the outbreak of the Rising, they seized Enniscorthy on Thursday 27 April and held it for four days with little violence. A young girl and a member of the RIC were wounded by gunfire, but there were no fatalities. Pubs were closed, pickets and guards were established, food and cars were commandeered, and the railway line was tampered with before a surrender was finally brokered. Given that the Volunteers held a sizeable town for four days, their seizure of Enniscorthy was, arguably, the most significant event of the Rising outside Dublin.

On the 9th of February 1921 I.R.A. Captain John Moran was taken from his home in Drogheda and shot dead, his body was found along with the body of Alderman Thomas Halpin of Drogheda on the banks of the River Boyne. Moran was employed as a printer in Cahill’s of Drogheda. He was a native of Church Street Enniscorthy County Wexford, he was 38 years old. He was reported locally that Moran and Halpin were killed in reprisal for the killing of a man name Percival at Ballycanew.

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